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Midterm

PP 110 Midterm: Midterm/Final notes


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PP110
Professor
Byron Williston
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ethics:
-Reasoned attempt to resolve important normative dilemmas.
-Conclusions are action- guiding.
-Tells us which actions are permissible
-Normative vs. Descriptive
-Normative: “Ought to” or “is” statements.
-Makes claims about how the world “should” or “ought” to be or has been.
-i.e I should get dressed before noon
-Descriptive: “is” statements
-Makes claims about the way the world “is”, was or will be.
-i.e “The earth is flat”
-Ethics vs. Law
-Jim Crowe laws: Limitations on african americans use of restaurants
-Nuremberg laws: made jews non-citizens
-
-Ethics vs. Etiquette:
-Ethics criticizes etiquette
-Tennis club with racist membership policies
-subject matter of ethics, is more important than subject matter of etiquette.
-Euthanasia on holding a fork
- Tripartite soul********
Ethics vs. Religion
-Difference between is epistemological
Purpose of Ethics:
-To keep society from disorientation
-To lessen suffering
-To promote human flourishing
-Philosophical Principles are universal. Law, etiquette, and religion are more particular than
philosophy.
Looking out for Ethical Egoism:
-Ethical Egoism:
-To view that, for each of us, it is best to preform only those actions that are fulfilling our own
desires or interests, regardless of the effect such actions have on others.
-Why people behave ‘justly’:
-Best: To do injustice and not be caught
-Worst: To suffer unjustly w/o being able to retaliate
-Justice is chosen, not for its own sake, but as the lesser evil. Chosen only to avoid being the
victim of injustice

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-Socratic/Christian view: Socrates: The unjust person has disordered soul, and is not truly
happy.
-Christian: There is place where goodness and happiness do finally come together.
-Egoism is not a moral theory, since the ‘moral code” cannot be made public.
-Egoist could be pretending to be acting in the best interest of others.
-If a moral principle can be used to ‘justify’ actions that are evil, the principal is absurd and can
be rejected.
Plato
-Believed there is a whole level of reality the senses cannot detect
-Platonic Forms
-Unchanging, eternal objects
-Outside physical world + mind
-Only encountered through pure thought
-Allegory of the cave
The Republic
-Thrasymachus says justice/morality is the rule of the strong over the weak
-Only in the self interest of the ruling parties to be just, so people will follow their social rules
-Glaucon devidas ‘goods’ into 3 types:
-Good we welcome not because of the outcome, but for itself (joy)
-Good we like for itself as well as the outcomes (knowing, seeing, being healthy)
-Good that is burdensome but beneficial- only for outcome (Phys. training, meds)
-Socrates argues that justice belongs to the highest type of good;
-Glaucon says this conflicts w/ the popular belief that it is the lowest good
-Glaucoma argues:
-justice is the second best solution, everyone would behave unjust, but no one wants to
suffer.
-Ring of Gyges: People who practice justice do it unwillingly + because they lack power to
do injustice, given the chance people would behave immorally.
-No one believes justice is good if its kept secret.
-It is not just if you do it for the reputation
-Adeimantus argues:
-People who praise justice, only do it for benefits.
-Injustice is easy, only shameful under opinion and law.
Plato:
-Appetitive desires: Food, sex, $
-Spirited desires: Fame, power
-Rational desires: Knowledge, truth
-Only philosophers can live a good life
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