PP 110 Midterm: Midterm/Final notes
This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
-Reasoned attempt to resolve important normative dilemmas.
-Conclusions are action- guiding.
-Tells us which actions are permissible
-Normative vs. Descriptive
-Normative: “Ought to” or “is” statements.
-Makes claims about how the world “should” or “ought” to be or has been.
-i.e I should get dressed before noon
-Descriptive: “is” statements
-Makes claims about the way the world “is”, was or will be.
-i.e “The earth is ﬂat”
-Ethics vs. Law
-Jim Crowe laws: Limitations on african americans use of restaurants
-Nuremberg laws: made jews non-citizens
-Ethics vs. Etiquette:
-Ethics criticizes etiquette
-Tennis club with racist membership policies
-subject matter of ethics, is more important than subject matter of etiquette.
-Euthanasia on holding a fork
- Tripartite soul********
Ethics vs. Religion
-Difference between is epistemological
Purpose of Ethics:
-To keep society from disorientation
-To lessen suffering
-To promote human ﬂourishing
-Philosophical Principles are universal. Law, etiquette, and religion are more particular than
Looking out for Ethical Egoism:
-To view that, for each of us, it is best to preform only those actions that are fulﬁlling our own
desires or interests, regardless of the effect such actions have on others.
-Why people behave ‘justly’:
-Best: To do injustice and not be caught
-Worst: To suffer unjustly w/o being able to retaliate
-Justice is chosen, not for its own sake, but as the lesser evil. Chosen only to avoid being the
victim of injustice
Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.
-Socratic/Christian view: Socrates: The unjust person has disordered soul, and is not truly
-Christian: There is place where goodness and happiness do ﬁnally come together.
-Egoism is not a moral theory, since the ‘moral code” cannot be made public.
-Egoist could be pretending to be acting in the best interest of others.
-If a moral principle can be used to ‘justify’ actions that are evil, the principal is absurd and can
-Believed there is a whole level of reality the senses cannot detect
-Unchanging, eternal objects
-Outside physical world + mind
-Only encountered through pure thought
-Allegory of the cave
-Thrasymachus says justice/morality is the rule of the strong over the weak
-Only in the self interest of the ruling parties to be just, so people will follow their social rules
-Glaucon devidas ‘goods’ into 3 types:
-Good we welcome not because of the outcome, but for itself (joy)
-Good we like for itself as well as the outcomes (knowing, seeing, being healthy)
-Good that is burdensome but beneﬁcial- only for outcome (Phys. training, meds)
-Socrates argues that justice belongs to the highest type of good;
-Glaucon says this conﬂicts w/ the popular belief that it is the lowest good
-justice is the second best solution, everyone would behave unjust, but no one wants to
-Ring of Gyges: People who practice justice do it unwillingly + because they lack power to
do injustice, given the chance people would behave immorally.
-No one believes justice is good if its kept secret.
-It is not just if you do it for the reputation
-People who praise justice, only do it for beneﬁts.
-Injustice is easy, only shameful under opinion and law.
-Appetitive desires: Food, sex, $
-Spirited desires: Fame, power
-Rational desires: Knowledge, truth
-Only philosophers can live a good life
You're Reading a Preview
Unlock to view full version