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Midterm

PS101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Walter Bradford Cannon, Positron Emission Tomography, Psps Pekanbaru


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Study Guide
Midterm

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Psychologists seek to describe explain and predict the occurrence of such behaviour
Pysche-soul
logos-study of a subject
Psychology-Study of the mind
German Wilhelm Wundt
Campaigned to make psycho its own discipline
Use to subcategory in Philosophy or Physiology
1879 Wilhelm established first lab of psycho at Uni of Leipzig
Considered the founder of psych
Psych's primary focus was consciousness
New lab started by G. Stanley Hall
Wilhelm's students
Important in growth in American Psych
Established John Hopkins Uni in 1883
Essential to the American Psychological Assoication
First President
Structuralism
Edward Titencher
The notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into basic elements and
investigate how these elements are related
identify components of conscious experience such as feelings, sensations
Much of their research pertained to the 5 senses
Functionalism
Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure
James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey
investigate mental testing, patterns of development, behaviour diff between sexes
Margaret Floy Washburn
First woman to receive Ph.D in psych
Debunked theories among them include men inferior to women
Mary Calkins
First female president of APA
Many believe functionalism won out between structuralism
Fostered 2 new subcategories
Behaviourism
Applied Psych
Behaviourism
Theoretical orientation based on premise that scientific psych should be observable by
behaviour
John Watson
Behaviour-any overt response or activity by an organism
Believed in nurture
Psychoanalytic
Freud
explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders
Believed behaviour is greatly influenced by how people deal with their sexual urges

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attempts to explain personality by focusing on unconscious determinants
Radical Behaviourism
Harvard Skinner
central in behavior and psych overall
psychology could understand and predict behaviour without resorting to physiological
explanations
Fundemental principle
Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to
repeat responses that lead to neutral outcomes
People are controlled by their environment
Free will=illusion
Humanism
theory blended between psychoanalytic and behaviourism
Theory- orientations that emphasizes their unique qualities of humans, especially their
freedom and their potential for human growth
Carl Rogers
Abrham Maslow
pg 13
Applied psychology
Concerned with everyday practical problems
Very prominent today
Clinical psychology
Concerned wit the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
pg 15
Cognition
mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Jean Piaget
Herbert Simon
won nobel prize
Has become the dominant perspective in contemporary psych
Donald Hebb
highlighting the importance of physiological and neuropsychological perspectives and
having paved the way for the recent cognitive perspectives
Ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the
worth of foreign regions
Evolutionary Psycho
theoretical perspective that is likely to be influential in the years to come
examines behaviour processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species
over the course of many generations
Females are superior to males on spatial skills
David Buss
1990's
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psych was witnessing the birth of its first major new theoretical perspective since cognitive
revolution
Martin Seligman
New pres of APA
Launched new initiative known as Positive Psych Movement
Begin to catalyze a change in the focus of psychology from pre-occupation with only
repairing the worst things in life to also building positive qualities
Uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative and
fulfilling aspects of life
3 ASPECTS
Positive Subjective Experience
Personal Strengths and Virtues
Positive Institutions and communities
Psychology- Science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that
underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to
practical problems
7 major research area's in modern psych
Developmental psych-development across life
Social Psych-Role of social forces
Experimental Psych-focuses on the traditional (5 senses)
Physiological Psych-influence of genetic factors
Cognitive Psych-higher mental processes
Personality-understanding consistency in behaviour
Psychometrics-measurement of behaviour and capacity
Applied Psych
Clinical Psych-evaluate and diagnose psychological disorders
Counselling Psych-Overlaps Clinical-Specialize in family, maritial or career
Educational and school psych-work to improve curriculum design
Industrial and Organizational Psych-variety of tasks in the business world
7 Crucial idea's of psych
Psych is empirical
Premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
Psych is theoretically diverse
Theory-system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
Psych evolves in a sociohistorical context
Progress in psychology affects trends, issues, and values in society
Behaviour is determined by multiple causes
The complexity of behaviour may seem self-evident, people usually think in terms of single
causes
She failed cuz she is lazy
Behaviour is shaped by cultural heritage
Culture refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, value's, norms, institutions and other
products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour
People's experience of the world is highly subjective
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