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PS101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Parietal Lobe, Depressant, Neurogenesis

Course Code
Mindi Foster
Study Guide

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The Brain
Biological bases of Behavior:
Specialized cells that carry messages throughout the nervous system
Electrochemical exchange both electrical and chemical
Differ in shape, size, and function
Afferent Neurons (sensory) – relay info from the sense to the brain and spinal cord
Efferent Neurons (motor) – send info from the central nervous system to the glands and
muscles, enabling the body to move
Interneurons – carry info between neurons in the central nervous system
Parts of the Neuron:
Cell body
Dendrites (receive messages)
Myelin sheath (insulator – allows for
the messages to move quickly and
efficiently down the axon)

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Nodes of Ranvier (messages jump
from node to node)
Terminal buttons (communicate
with other neurons)
Glial Cells
Like the glue that holds neurons together
Waste system; removes waste such as dead neurons
Can in some cases act like a neuron
Firing of neuron:
Resting potential:
Battery – 70 millivolts
Negative charge
Action potential:
Channels in membrane open
Positively charged sodium ions enter
Shift in electrical charge
Refractory period:

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Channels close
All or None Law:
Neuron either fires or it doesn’t
Intensity is conveyed by the rapidity of firing
Where neurons meet
Structures of the synapse:
Axon terminal
Synaptic vesicles – sacs, stores chemicals
Neurotransmitters – transmit info between neurons
Synaptic cleft – gap, neurons don’t touch
Acetylcholine – between motor neurons and voluntary muscles
Throughout the nervous system
Agonists excite – increase likelihood of firing
Antagonists oppose – decreases likelihood of firing
Monoamines – 3 Neurotransmitters:
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