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Study Guide

[PS102] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 134 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood
Study Guide
Midterm

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WLU
PS102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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The Science of Psychology
Research Question
1) Experiment
-a means to collect data
2) Cause and effect
-how variables relate to each other
-whether they affect each other at all
3) Hypothesis
-educated guess
-seek to prove it wrong or right through experimentation
Examples:
Does multitasking with technology in class reduce grades?
-studies say yes
-multitasking negatively impacts grades whether people realize it or not
Do mothers and fathers engage equally in gender stereotyped play with their
preschoolers?
-studies say dads are more gender stereotyped
-women are more gender neutral
-more gender stereotyped when it comes to ones own kids
Does answering why questions while studying from text improve grades?
-studies say yes
The Experiment: Variables
1) Independent
-the variable that the experimenter controls
-testing to see if it causes a difference
-what the experimenter changes to see cause and effect results
2) Dependent
-does not change
-variable that we measure
-relies on independent variable
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3) Extraneous
-variables that are unplanned for
-happens to one group but doesn't happen to the other
-ex: testing 2 groups in different classes, computer screen in one group
malfunctions and doesn't work
-this will affect the results in an unplanned way
-one group has no heat in their classroom, the other does. Ones without heat are
cold, don't focus as well
Design concerns:
1) selection bias:
-experimenter must be very careful to make sure the two groups are equivalent
-the cure to this is random sampling/random assignment
2) experimenter bias:
-experimenters like to see what they want to see
-cure is double blind procedures
-experimenter has no role in choosing and therefore cannot guide it
-neither experimenter nor subject knows what variable they have been given
3) placebo:
-the cure is exposure control groups
-half of group actual gets treatment/independent variable
-other half is control group, not given anything
-when you are only really testing one group
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