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Study Guide

[PS102] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 46 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Joanne Lee
Study Guide
Final

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WLU
PS102
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

January 10
Sensation and Perception
- Sensation is the process through which the senses detect visual, auditory, and other
sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain
- Perception is the process by which sensory information is actively organized and
interpreted by the brain
Processing Sensory Information
- Bottom-up processing: perception that proceeds by transducing environmental stimuli
into neural impulses that move successively into more complex brain regions
- Top-down processing: perception processes led by cognitive processes, such as memory
or expectations
Sensory Receptor Cells
- Sensory receptor cells: specialized cells that convert a specific form of environment
stimuli into neural impulses
- Sensory transduction: the process of converting a specific form of sensory data into a
neural impulse that our brain can read
Absolute Threshold
- The smallest amount of a stimulus that one can detect
Smell- a drop of perfume diffused throughout a six-room apartment
Taste- 5 milliliters of sugar in 9 liters of water
- The minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time
Difference Threshold (JND)
- The smallest increase or decrease in a physical stimulus that is required to produce the
just otieale differee i sesatio that is detectable 50% of the time
- Weber fraction
- Amount of increase needed to make a difference
If you’re arryig kg,  additioal gra will ot ake a differee
If you carry only 20grams, 1gram will make a difference
Signal Detection Theory
- Detection of sensory stimulus involves noticing a stimulus from background noise and a
decision about whether the stimulus Is present
- Decision= probability of stimulus occurrence+ potential gain or loss with deciding
whether the stimulus was present or not
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- Example: picking up your cousin, whom you have never met, at the airport having only a
description or old photo
Sensory Adaptation
- Process of becoming less sensitive to an unchanging sensory stimulus over time
- Automatic process
- Allows us to shift attention
The Visual Sense: Light
- Transduction: the process of converting light into neural impulses
How the Eye Works
- Light waves enter the cornea
Cornea is protective outer layer
- Passes through the pupil
The pupil is a small opening in the eye
- Passes through the lens
The lens focuses the light waves
- Projected into the retina
Retina contains all of the receptor cells (rods and cones)
The Retina
- The rods and cones transduce the light waves into a neural impulse
- Rods
Used for periphery and night vision
Not as acute as cones
Many more rods than cones
- Cones
Used for central and colour vision
Very acute
The fovea (center of retina) all cones
Not as many cones
- Optic nerves
From both eyes meet at optic chiasm- where some fibers go to the opposite side
of the brain
Seeing in Colour
- Light= electromagnetic radiation
Brightness
Hue: perception of colour
Saturation: purity of colour
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