Study Guides (380,000)
CA (150,000)
WLU (5,000)
PS (800)
PS102 (70)

PS102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Standard Deviation, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Smart People

Course Code
Carolyn Ensley
Study Guide

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Psych Midterm 2 Study Notes
Chapter 8 Language and Thought
-language is: CS MC
Structure of Language
Phonemes: smallest unit of speech
-don’t correspond to letters in alphabet
-only about 40 in English
Morphemes: the smallest unit of meaning in language
-can be a word, but doesn’t have to be
-some are single syllables, some single letters
Syntax: a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged
Language Development
Babbling: becomes more and more complex
-lasts until about 18 months
-vocabulary spurt happens at 18-24 months
Overextensions: word is used too liberally
-ex. daddy = man
Underextensions: general word but child restricts it
-ex. drink = juice
Overregularization: when grammar rules are wrongly generalized to irregular cases
-ex. i hitted the ball
Metalinguistic Awareness: growing appreciation of ambiguities, and word play
-irony, and sarcasm
Theories of Language Acquisition
-learn through direct reinforcement/punishment from parents
-also imitation and shaping
CON doesn’t explain creativity or errors in speech
-biologically and physiologically equipped for speech
-Language Acquisition Device
-critical period: between 2 and puberty
CONS acquisition not completed as early as they thought
-diversity of language and grammar hard to explain
-biology and experience are both important

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Problem Solving
-initial state set of operations goal state
*problem solving depends on your preferences, experience, knowledge and the situation
Schemas step-by-step scripts for selecting info
-experts = many schemas for problem solving
-experience develops schemas and they help to solve specialized problems
-novices rely on general problem-solving methods, use working memory
-experts large number of schemas to guide them
Algorithm: formulas/procedures that automatically generate correct solutions
-but may be time consuming
Heuristic: general problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain situations
-rule of thumb, mental short-cuts
Problems in Problem Solving
Mental Set: stay w/ one approach to a situation
Functional Fixedness: fixed in perception of typical use of object
-blinded to new ways to use object
Irrelevant Info: people incorrectly assume that all numerical info is necessary to solve problem
-need to find out what’s relevant
Restructuring: insight when you look at a problem from different view
Creativity: involves a conceptual reorganization to generate something new
Incubation: creative solutions suddenly pop into mind after you give up
Deductive Reasoning: reason from general principle to a conclusion
Inductive Reasoning: start w/ specific facts, and develop a general principle
Chapter 9 Intelligence
Characteristics of a Good Test (VSR)
Validity: measures what is intended to measure
Standardization: getting norms for comparing scores
Reliability: gives nearly the same score each time a person takes it
Evaluation of Intelligence Testing
-thought that smart people should show exceptional sensory acuity
-tried to test mental ability by measuring sensory processes
-with little success
-created the first useful test of general mental ability
-expressed a child’s score in terms of mental age
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version