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Midterm

PS102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Depth Perception, Auditory Cortex, Umami


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Joanne Lee
Study Guide
Midterm

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PS102 Term Test 1 Review
Chapter 1.4 Twentieth-Century Approaches
Psychoanalysis: Psychology of the Unconscious
- Unconscious: hypothesized repository of thoughts, feelings, and sensations outside
human awareness
o Thought in some theories to have a strong bearing on human behaviour
o State where information is not easily accessible to conscious awareness
Sigmund Freud
- The elief that peoples ehaious ae ased o thei uosious desies ad oflits
- Freud developed psychoanalysis, that aimed to resolve unconscious conflicts
- Psychoanalytic Theory: psychological theory that human mental processes are
influenced by the competition among unconscious forces to come into awareness
Behaviourism: Psychology of Adaptation
- Behaviourism: branch of psychological thought arguing that psychology should study
only directly observable behaviours rather than abstract mental processes
- Early behaviourists tended to focus on relationships between stimuli and responses
- Stimuli: elements of the environment that trigger changes in our internal or external
states
- Responses: the way we react to stimuli
- Edward Thorndike: proposed research findings from the study that animals could help
explain human behaviours
- Ivan Pavlov: found that dogs could learn to associate a bell with an automatic
behaviour, such as salivating for food.
o This is called classic conditioning
- John B. Watson: oduted the Little Alet epeiet deostatig that hilde
(people) could be classically conditioned
- B.F. Skinner: developed operant conditioning to shape behaviour
o Punishment and reinforcements
- Reinforcement: a learning process that increases the likelihood a given response will be
repeated
- Punishment: an experience that produces a decrease in a particular behaviour
- Albert Bandura: described learning by social observation in children and several species
of primates
o A juvenile Bonobo chimpanzee observing the behaviour of an adult
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Humanistic Psychology: A New Direction
- Humanistic Psychology: theory of psychology that sought to give greater prominence to
the special and unique features of human functioning
- Carl Rogers: deeloped liet-eteed theap, hih said that people ae iatel
good
- Abraham Maslow: developed a theory of motivation that consists of a hierarchy of
needs
- Client-Centered Therapy: humanistic therapy designed to help clients experience
unconditional positive regard and look at themselves honestly and acceptingly
Cognitive Psychology: Revitalization of Study of the Mind
- Cognitive Psychology: field of psychology studying mental processes as forms of
information processing, or the ways in which information is stored and operated in our
minds
- Information Processing: the means by which information is stored and operates
internally
- Cultural Psychology: study of how cultural practices shape psychological and
behavioural tendencies and influence human behaviour
- Cross-Cultural Psychology: the stud of what is generally and universally true about
human beings, regardless of culture
- Ulric Neisser coined the term cognitive psychology as the study of information
processing
- The role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language,
decision making, learning, memory, language, solve problems, and think
- Cognitive psychologists compared the human mind to a computer
Psychobiology/Neuroscience: Exploring the Origins of the Mind
- Neuroscience: study of the brain and nervous system
Chapter 1.5 Psychology Today
Branches of Psychology
- Academic Psychology: a branch of psychology focusing on research and instruction in
the various areas or fields of study in psychology
- Applied Psychology: the branch of psychology applying psychological principles to
practical problems in other fields, such as education, marketing, or industry
- Clinical and Counselling Psychology: the study of abnormal psychological behaviour and
interventions designed to change that behaviour
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Shared Values
- Psychology is:
o Theory Driven: uses theories to explain behaviour
o Empirical: based on research
o Multi-Level: explained by the brain, the individual and social influences
o Contextual: based on cultural context
Current Trends in Psychology
- Growing Diversity: more women and members of minority groups
- Advances in Technology: the development of computers and brain imaging techniques
led to the new research in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience
- New Schools of Thought: positive psychology and positive psychotherapy focus on
happiness and other positive emotions
- Collectivist Culture: a culture whose members focus more on the needs of the group
and less on individual desires
- Individualist Culture: a culture that places the wants or desires of the person over the
needs of the group
Chapter 2.3 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?
Identifying Variables
- Variable: condition, event, or situation that is studied in an experiment
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