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PS102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bulimia Nervosa, Cognitive Dissonance, Detection Theory

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Joanne Lee
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PS102 Final Exam Review
Ch 1.4 Twentieth-Century Approaches
Psychoanalysis: Psychology of the Unconscious
- Unconscious: hypothesized repository of thoughts, feelings, and sensations outside human
o Thought in some theories to have a strong bearing on human behaviour
o State where information is not easily accessible to conscious awareness
Sigmund Freud
- The belief that peoples behaviours are based on their unconscious desires and conflicts
- Freud developed psychoanalysis, that aimed to resolve unconscious conflicts
- Psychoanalytic Theory: psychological theory that human mental processes are influenced
by the competition among unconscious forces to come into awareness
Behaviourism: Psychology of Adaptation
- Behaviourism: branch of psychological thought arguing that psychology should study only
directly observable behaviours rather than abstract mental processes
- Early behaviourists tended to focus on relationships between stimuli and responses
- Stimuli: elements of the environment that trigger changes in our internal or external states
- Responses: the way we react to stimuli
- Edward Thorndike: proposed research findings from the study that animals could help
explain human behaviours
- Ivan Pavlov: found that dogs could learn to associate a bell with an automatic behaviour,
such as salivating for food.
o This is called classic conditioning
- John B. Watson: conducted the Little Albert experiment demonstrating that children
(people) could be classically conditioned
- B.F. Skinner: developed operant conditioning to shape behaviour
o Punishment and reinforcements
- Reinforcement: a learning process that increases the likelihood a given response will be
- Punishment: an experience that produces a decrease in a particular behaviour
- Albert Bandura: described learning by social observation in children and several species of
o A juvenile Bonobo chimpanzee observing the behaviour of an adult
Humanistic Psychology: A New Direction
- Humanistic Psychology: theory of psychology that sought to give greater prominence to
the special and unique features of human functioning
- Carl Rogers: developed client-centered therapy, which said that people are innately good
- Abraham Maslow: developed a theory of motivation that consists of a hierarchy of needs
- Client-Centered Therapy: humanistic therapy designed to help clients experience
unconditional positive regard and look at themselves honestly and acceptingly
Cognitive Psychology: Revitalization of Study of the Mind
- Cognitive Psychology: field of psychology studying mental processes as forms of
information processing, or the ways in which information is stored and operated in our
- Information Processing: the means by which information is stored and operates internally
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- Cultural Psychology: study of how cultural practices shape psychological and behavioural
tendencies and influence human behaviour
- Cross-Cultural Psychology: the stud of what is generally and universally true about human
beings, regardless of culture
- Ulric Neisser coined the term cognitive psychology as the study of information processing
- The role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language, decision
making, learning, memory, language, solve problems, and think
- Cognitive psychologists compared the human mind to a computer
Psychobiology/Neuroscience: Exploring the Origins of the Mind
- Neuroscience: study of the brain and nervous system
Ch 1.5 Psychology Today
Branches of Psychology
- Academic Psychology: a branch of psychology focusing on research and instruction in the
various areas or fields of study in psychology
- Applied Psychology: the branch of psychology applying psychological principles to
practical problems in other fields, such as education, marketing, or industry
- Clinical and Counselling Psychology: the study of abnormal psychological behaviour and
interventions designed to change that behaviour
Shared Values
- Psychology is:
o Theory Driven: uses theories to explain behaviour
o Empirical: based on research
o Multi-Level: explained by the brain, the individual and social influences
o Contextual: based on cultural context
Current Trends in Psychology
- Growing Diversity: more women and members of minority groups
- Advances in Technology: the development of computers and brain imaging techniques led
to the new research in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and social neuroscience
- New Schools of Thought: positive psychology and positive psychotherapy focus on
happiness and other positive emotions
- Collectivist Culture: a culture whose members focus more on the needs of the group and
less on individual desires
- Individualist Culture: a culture that places the wants or desires of the person over the
needs of the group
Ch 2.3 How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?
Building a Theory
1. Identify questions of interest and review the literature
2. Develop a testable hypothesis (must be operationally defined)
3. Select a research method, choose participants, and collect the data
4. Analyze the data and accept or reject the hypothesis
5. Seek scientific review, publish, and replicate
6. Build a theory
Identifying Variables
- Variable: condition, event, or situation that is studied in an experiment
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- Independent Variable: condition or event that is thought to be a factor in changing
another condition or event
- Dependent Variable: condition or event that you expect to change as a result of variations
in the independent variable
- Operationalize: to develop a working definition of a variable that allows you to test it
Choosing Participants
- Sample: a group or set of people or items drawn from a larger population
- Random Selection: identifying a sample in a way that everyone in the population of
interest has an equal chance of being involved in the study
- Experimental Group: group that is exposed to the independent variable
o Gets the manipulation
- Control Group: group that hasnt been or wont be exposed to the independent variable
o Equivalent BUT doesnt get the manipulation/treatment
o Eliminates extraneous/confounding variables
Ex. environmental condition
Picking a Research Method
- Descriptive Research Methods: studies that allow researchers to demonstrate a
relationship between the variables of interest without specifying a causal relationship
o Examines how one variable causes another to change
o Also called correlation
Descriptive vs. Experimental Research
- Case Study: study focusing on a single person
- Naturalistic (Lab) Observations: study in which researchers observe people in a study
behaving as they normally do
- Hawthorne Effect: people who are being observed will improve or change some of their
behaviour because they are being watched or studied, not in response to an experimental
- Surveys: researchers give participants a questionnaire or interview them
o Big samples, small report
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