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PS102 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Flynn Effect, Ween, Motor System

Course Code
Joanne Lee
Study Guide

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Chapter 7: Human Memory
What Is Memory?
The system by which we retain information and bring it to mind
A method of retaining the information and skills we acquire through experience
o Converting information into a form usable in memory
o The transformation of information from one code to another (neural code)
o Code can be sound pattern, letter sequence, image, tactile cue
o paying attention to incoming information
o Retaining information in memory
o The retention of encoded information over time
o Has to be a memory trace
o Can last from fractions of a second
Sensory memory
o To several seconds
Short term/working memory
o To indefinitely
Long term memory
o Bringing stored information to mind
o Recovery of stored information when it is needed
o Two common causes for retrieval failure
The Processes and Types of Memory
Sensory memory
o Visual
o Acoustic
o Haptic
Working Memory
o Visuospatial sketchpad
o Phonological loop
o Episodic buffer
o Central Executive
Long Term Memory
Types and Stages of Memory
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Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (Store Model)
o Sensory Memory
Hold large amounts of incoming information for a very short period
of time
Iconic Stores - Visual Info
Lasts fraction of a second
Echoic Stores - Auditory Info
Lasts about 2 seconds
o Short Term
How is information represented
Mental representations/memory codes
Various forms
Images, sounds, meaning, physical action
Form of memory code does not correspond to form of
original stimulus
Lasts 20 seconds
Errors are often in sounds
Capacity and duration
Five to nine meaningful items
Magical number = 7 +- 2 (Miller 1956)
Digit Span Task
Repeat series of numbers
Increasing Short-Term Memory
Combining individual items into larger units of meaning
This is most effective
Extending Duration
Maintenance Rehearsal
Simple repetition
Elaborative Rehearsal
Focus on meaning
More effective
o Working Memory
Adaptation of short term memory
Active ,manipulates information
Allows for multiple simultaneous processes
problem planning and solving
o Long Term Memory
Consider the following
What is your birthday?
Use the word justice in a sentence
Stand up and throw a ball
All call upon long term information you have but each is different
Some is unique to you
Some is general to all of us
some require physical movement
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Can be verbalized
Factual knowledge
Two subcategories
Personal experiences
Rich in sensory experience
General facts
Long Term Memory: Non Declarative
Reflected in skills and actions
Some classical condition responses
Procedural memory is the memory for how to carry out some skill
Long Term Memory
Serial Position Effect
U shaped Pattern
o Two components
Primacy Effect
Information transferred to long term memory
Recency Effect
Information still in short term memory
Effect diminished if time delay before recall
Organization of Long Term Memory
Connectionist theories
o Spreading activation
o Linking concepts to other concepts in a very complex networks
o Organization of semantic memory
o Reflect the most typical features if objects and situations
Organization of episodic memory, and possibly procedural
Schemas can explain mistakes
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