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Study Guide

PS102- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 82 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Joanne Lee
Study Guide
Final

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WLU
PS102
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PS 102 - chapter notes
*based on depression graph*
Analyzing data:
Descriptive statistics:
- Summarize actual study data
- Determine correlations (if these is a relationship between variables)
Inferential statistic:
- Extend conclusions to larger population
- Determine the hypothesis has been supported or if there is a meaningful difference
between the groups
Descriptive statistics: One variable
Use statistics:
- The mean, median, mode (aka measured of central tendency)
- Answer the question; where do most of the scores lie? The standard deviation, the range
(aka measures of variability)
- Answer the question: how much do the scores differ from one another
Not everyone gets the same score:
- Variability-gives how much variability a scare has from the mean
- Little variability-all bunched up close to the mean
- Lots of variability
- Wide curve
Measures of central tendency: *on midterm*
Mean = average
- Add all the scores, then divide by the number of scores
- Is more affected by outliers (extreme scores)
- Ex: employees depression score of company A: 500, 600, 700, 1000 = mean
depression score = 2800 / 4 = 700
- Ex: employees depression score of company B: 500, 600, 700, 10,000 = 11,800 /
4 = 2950
- With extreme scores do not use mean because the results will be too drastic
Median:
- Is the middle score
- The one that falls in the middle of the distribution
- Is less affected by outliers
Mode:
- Mode is the most commonly or frequently occurring score
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What is a correlation?:
- Involves measuring and determining the relation between two variables; (correlation -
relation of two things)
- Mental development index (MDI) determines your cognitive ability
- Ex: the more the pregnant mom drinks the lower the MDI score will be
Kinds of correlations:
Positive:
- As one variable goes up, the other does too. (ex; study time and grades)
Negative:
- Increase in one variable and a decrease in order
Strength of a correlation:
- Higher the number the stronger the correlation
- The positive or negative reflects direction not strength
- 0 to 1 = positive and -1 to 0 = negative
- So which is the strongest correlation
- .3, -.8, -.2, .7 ---> correlation coefficients
- Strongest correlation is -.8
- Negative isnt the value of the number it is the direction
- When looking at strength of correction just look at the largest number
Reading correlation graphs:
- Data points
- Scatterplots
- Line of best fit
- Angle of line reflects correlation
- Life of best fit is correlation coefficient
Why correlation studies:
- Because you can have access to two pieces of information but may not be able to
manipulate the variables
- In correlation studies we cannot say that variable A causes variable B because it is only
a correlation, not experimental study
- Correlation is not a causation
- As stress level goes up so will depression
- Sometimes there is a third factor that links relationships together
Experimental research methods:
- Examines how one variable causes another variable to change
- Hypothesis
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