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Study Guide

PS102- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 52 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Joanne Lee
Study Guide
Final

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WLU
PS102
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Long term memory: Explicit
Explicit/ declarative
Can be verbalized
Factual knowledge
Two subcategories
Episodic
Personal experiences (‘episodes’ of your life)
Rich in sensory experience
Semantic
General factual knowledge
Long term memory: Implicit/Non-declarative
Reflected in skills and actions
Some classical conditioned responses
Nonverbal, cannot be verbalized
Procedural memory is the memory for how to carry out some skill
Organization of long-term memory
Connectionist theories
Parallel distributed theory
Linking concepts to other concepts in a very complex networks
Organization of semantic memory
Schemas explain some of the mistakes we make in memories
Reflect the most typical features of objects and situations and how they work
Organization of episodic memory, and possible procedural memory
Long -term memory and the brain
Different structures work together for memory (diagram on powerpoint in
mylearningspace)
Semantic memory and cerebral cortex
Occipital lobe
Remembering visual images of objects including names
Motor areas of frontal lobe
Remembering an action that is related to the equipment that is being asked
Episodic memory and hippocampus
Amygdala
Has to do with emotions that are intense
Strengthen consolidation of memories for intensely emotional experiences
Hippocampus
Consolidation
Procedural memory and basal ganglia
Thalamus
Basal ganglia
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Control fine movements, ex. writing, texting
Amygdala
Getting information from short-term memory to long-term memory
Encoding
So what works?
Encoding meaningfully
Encoding meaningfully
Deeper is better
POTATO - is word in capitals (structural/surface level)
Horse - does it rhyme with course? (phonological)
TABLE - does it fit in sentence “The man peeled ___’ (semantic/meaning)
Short-term to Long-term memory: Other Strategies
Use chunking- group bits of information together
Use the PGRST Method - Preview, Question, Read, Self-recitation, Test
Use Schemas - organize new information according to the categories created by previous
experience and learning
How do we retrieve memories?
Cues
External information associated with stored information and helps to bring it to mind
Retrieval cues
Encoding specificity principle
A retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the
specific way in which information was initially coded
How memory is enhanced when conditions at retrieval match those conditions at
encoding
Cues
External contexts
Inner states
External context as Cues
Context-dependent memory
Easier to remember something in same environment where encoded
Inner states as Cues
State-dependent memory
Ability to retrieve better when internal state at retrieval matches that at encoding
Mood-congruent recall (page 312)
Tend to recall information or events congruent with current mood
Happy mood - more pleasant things than sad mood
Retrieval: Distinctiveness
Flashbulb memories
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