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PS102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Ulric Neisser, Little Albert Experiment, Albert Bandura

Course Code
Joanne Lee
Study Guide

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Twentieth Century Approaches
Psychoanalysis The Psychology of the Unconscious
Sigmund Freud
o the belief that people’s behaviours are based on their unconscious desires
and conflicts (Psychoanalytic Theory)
o Freud developed psychoanalysis, that aimed to resolve unconscious conflicts
Balance btwn Id & superego
Behaviourism The Study of Observable Behaviour
Behaviourism psychological research should only focus on behaviour you can
o Relationship between stimuli and response
Edward Thorndike
o Proposed research findings from the study of animals could help explain
human behaviour
Ivan Pavlov
o Found that dogs could learn to associate a bell w/ an automatic behaviour,
such as salivating for food. This is called classical conditioning.
John B. Watson
o He conducted the “Little Albert” experiment demonstrating that children
(people) could be classically conditioned
B.F. Skinner
o Developed operant conditioning to shape behaviour
Reinforcement: increases the likelihood a response will be repeated; a
rewarding consequence
Punishment: decreases the likelihood a response will be repeated; a
bad consequence
Albert Bandura
o Described learning by social observation/modelling in children & several
species of primates
Humanistic Psychology A New Direction
Humanistic Psychologists stressed that a person has a capacity for personal growth
and freedom to choose his or her destiny, and positive qualities
o Humans are captive by our internal conflicts

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Carl Rogers
o Developed “client-centred therapy”, which said that people are innately good
o Unconditional love
o If self-perception does not match perception of others = issues arise
Abraham Maslow
o Developed a theory of motivation that consists of a hierarchy of needs
Cognitive Psychology Revitalization of Study of the Mind
Ulric Neisser coined the term cognitive psychology as the study of information
o Information Processing: how information is stored and operates internally
The role of mental processes in how people process information, develop language,
solve problems, and think
Cognitive psychologists compared the human mind to a computer
o Software = mental processes; if modified, control behaviour
o Hardware = human nervous system
Focus on function of mental processes rather than the content
Cultural Psychology: how culture affects thought & behaviour
Cross-Cultural Psychology: mental processes that are common to all humans
Psychology Today
Doctoral Degrees Awarded in Psychology
o 47% clinical
o 9% neuroscience
o 8% counselling
Key Branches in Psychology
Academic Psychology
o Involves research on many topics
o Work @ universities, colleges
o Ex. Development psychologist teaching course
Clinical & Counselling Psychology
o Helps individuals cope w/ or overcome abnormal functioning
Applied Psychology
o Applies psychological principles to solve problems in various fields
o Includes: school, rehabilitation, health, forensic, etc.
o Ex. Sports psychologist
Shared Values of All Psychologists
Psychology is…
Theory-driven: uses theories to explain behaviours

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Empirical: based on research
Multi-Level: explained by the brain, the individual, and social influences
Contextual: based on cultural context
Current Trends in Psychology
Growing Diversity
o More women & members of minority groups
Advances in Technology
o New research in the fields of cognitive neuroscience and social
o Enhances understanding & treatment of mental dysfunction
New Schools of Thought
o Positive psychology and positive psychotherapy focus on happiness and
other positive emotions
Scientific Theories and Hypotheses
Theory: explains & predicts observed phenomena
Hypothesis: falsifiable (results can be recreated) & testable prediction
Data: systematic observation
Research Methods to Achieve the Goals (Fig 2.3)
Descriptive Research
o Case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys
o Purpose:
Observe, collect, record data
Meets the descriptive goal of psychology
o Limitations
Naturalistic observations
Must wait for event to happen
Observer bias observer ‘sees’ what they’re expecting
Laboratory observations
Loss of spontaneity
Still wait a bit
Observer bias
Case studies
Limited sample size, low generalizability, observer bias
Hawthorne effect if you’re being watched in a study, you change the
way you act.
No cause and effect.
Need larger population and many observations to confirm.
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