PS102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Olfactory Bulb, Cocktail Party
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Chapter 2: Methods of Study
Naturalistic, surveys, case studies, experiments & quasi-experiments (not completely controlled)
are some ways of testing hypothesis.
Descriptive stats give basic info about data, such as the mean, median, mode & standard
A correlation is:
A) Positive (both variable goes up w each other)
B) Negative (variables go opposite ways)
Ex: When there is < pay, goods also >
Ex: When < alcohol is consumed, fetal alcohol syndrome is <
The + or - sign shows the direction, not strength, of correlations.
Chapter 4: Development
Periods of development are:
A) Critical (must occur in this time frame)
B) Sensitive (optimal range)
Discontinuous change is qualitative (run, run fast, run smart) & quantitative (crawl, walk, run)
Chapter 5: Sensation & Perception
Processing info is:
A) Bottom-up (enviro, neurons, brain)
B) Top-down (brain, neurons, reaction to enviro)
Sensory Info comes from:
- Goes to olfactory bulb, not Thalamus
- Nerve endings are hot & cold, pain & temperature
- Touch travels from sensory receptors - spinal cord - cross brainstem - thalamus -
somatosensory in parietal lobe
- Sharp, localized pain travels through myelin so it is felt quickly
- Kinesthetic sense is not knocking into things with your limbs bc you know where they
are. Your vestibular sense determines your body’s orientation & sense of balance
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- Cochlea (collects sound), ossicles (amplifies), pinna (collects sound)
- Hair cells vibrating quickly/slowly = high/low frequency
- Cocktail party effect
- Light waves enter cornea, pupil, lense, retina (contains rods & cones), optic nerve
- Trichromatic theory: we see red, green & blue wavelengths & the visual
- Binocular depth
Sensory perception cells are exactly what they sound like & tranduce info.
Absolute threshold is the smallest amount of these stimuli that need to be present for detection.
It is affected by your difference threshold, the ability to notice change in stimuli.
Ex: No perfume smell, then a drop of perfume is spilled & you notice a change.
Sensory Detection Theory explains that we determine our reaction to stimuli after it is
recognized. This can be affected by Sensory Adaptation Theory, the fact that stimuli is not as
pervasive when it is around more often.
Ex: A loud noise warrants a reaction when home alone but not necessarily when out & about
Ex: The noise no longer bothers you bc you are used to it.
Chapter 8: Memory
Encoding, storage & retrieval processes turn data into neural code that moves through the
sensory, working, then long-term memory.
Information Processing Theory describes how info is stored piece by piece.
Parallel Distribution is the spider web.
Long-term memory is:
A) Implicit (conditioning, priming & daily tasks like driving or brushing teeth)
B) Explicit (sematic is general info & episodic is you-based stories)
Capacity for working memory is 5-9.
Schemas provide a bias from experience of how things should/might go.
Brain parts involve:
A) Hippocampus - search bar (consolidation)
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