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Study Guide

PS102 Study Guide - Winter 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Memory, Sensory Neuron, Neuron


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood
Study Guide
Midterm

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PS102
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018

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Language and Thought
Properties of Language
Symbolic
Symbol system (written and sound)
Creative
Effortlessly create new sentences
Have finite vocabulary can be combined in infinite ways
Structured
Although creative - there are some restrictions
These are regularities of language (not necessarily grammar rules)
Eg., can end a sentence with a preposition and be understood, can’t say “dinner
the”
Meaningful/Semantic
Each word represents an idea (object, action, abstraction, quality)
Grammar/structure also contribute to the ideas eg., dog bites cat or cat bites dog
Communicative
Some language is private - for ourselves
Most language is directed at and around others, social activity
Need to know the sounds, words, sentences of language and principles of
conversation
Conversation: Pragmatics
Knowing how to speak to whom
Child, loved one, stranger, employer, enemy, expert, etc.
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Motivated Forgetting
Suppression (conscious)
Repression (unconscious)
Interference
Retroactive Interference
Information being learned currently → interferes→ information learned previously
Proactive Interference
Information being learned currently ← interferes ← information learned previously
Consequences of Forgetting
Loss of details
Loss of information (incomplete story)
Misattribution - source errors
Source monitoring
Minimizing Forgetting
Deeper, more elaborative processing at encoding
Strategies
External memory aids (notes/pictures)
Taken as soon as possible
Minimal external influence
Distributed vs massed practice
Practical Implications
Memories are records of a person’s experiences - not a record of events themselves
Remembering is a constructive process
Memories are incomplete
Few details are contained in most memories (No eidetic? No flashbulb?)
The flaws in memory don’t mean that the eyewitness is a lousy eyewitness
Confidence in a memory has no bearing on accuracy
People can have memories of events they did not experience (info from others,
imaginings, stories)
Other Models
Parallel Distributed Processing - Connectionism
Neural analogy, node (like a neuron) based on action of multiple nodes
simultaneously
Networks are established, linked
The Brain and Memory
Acquiring information - prefrontal cortex
Accessing long term memories - hippocampal region
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