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Final

PS102 Study Guide - Final Guide: Antibody, Slut, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS102
Professor
Eileen Wood
Study Guide
Final

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PS102 FINAL EXAM NOTES
CHAPTER 6: Learning
Learning- refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to
experience
- one of the most fundamental aspects of psychology
- acquisition of knowledge and skills
- shapes personal habits and preferences, personality traits, emotional responses and
much of our behaviour
o Acquisition: the initial stage of learning something
o Extinction: the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
tendency
o Stimulus Generalization: an organism’s responding to stimuli other than the original
stimulus used in conditioning
o Stimulus Discrimination: an organism’s response to stimuli that are similar to the
original stimulus used in conditioning
Conditioning- learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment.
There are three main types of conditioning, they are...
1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING...a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity
to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus
- stimuli precede the response
Pavlovian Conditioning- established by Ivan Pavlov determine classical conditioning - used
dogs in his experiment:
o tone (CS or neutral stimulus) was given at the presence of meat powder (UCS or
stimulus)  detect salivation
o would eventually salivate in the presence of the tone alone
- this demonstrated learned associations, were formed by events in an organism’s environment
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that evokes an unconditional response without
previous conditioning
- unconditioned response (UCR)- an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs
without previous conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning,
acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response
- conditioned response (CR)- a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of
previous conditioning
Physic Reflex or Conditioned Reflex- most reflexes are relatively automatic or involuntary
Trial- consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli- psychologists are
concerned for how many trials are required to establish a particular conditioned
bond

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Emotional Response:
- conditioned fears can be traced back to experiences that involve classical conditioning
- pleasant  smell associations
Physiological Response:
- immune system  lead to immune-suppression (a decrease in the production of
antibodies)
- allergic reactions
- drug tolerance (pre-drug cues elicit a CCR that attenuates the drug effect) CCR
strengthens
Acquisition:
- depends on stimulus contiguity  stimuli are contiguous if they occur together in the same place
- CS+UCS CR
Extinction:
- consistent presentation of conditioned stimulus alone, without the unconditioned
stimulus
- spontaneous recovery- the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of
non- exposure to the conditioned stimulus
- renewal effect- extinction does not appear to lead to unlearning
- CR (alone) until it no longer elicits CR
Stimulus Generalization:
- the more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization
- graph form: generalization gradients
- CR elicited by new stimulus that resembles original CS
Stimulus Discrimination:
- the original CS continue to be paired with the UCS, while similar stimuli not be paired with the
UCS
Higher-order Conditioning- a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned
stimulus
- built on the foundation of already established conditioned responses
- classical conditioning- does not depend on the presence of genuine, natural UCS
2. OPERANT CONDITIONING
...a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by other consequences
- stimulus events that follow the response  consequences
- B.F Skinner: learning occurs because responses come to be influenced by the outcomes that
follow them
Law of Effect- if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the
association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened
- Edward Thorndike
- Instrumental Learning- a mechanical process in which successful responses are
gradually “stamped in” by their favourable effects
Reinforcement- occurs when an event following a response increases an organisms tendency to
make that response

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- B.F Skinner
- Organisms repeat those responses that are followed by favourable/rewarding
consequences
Operant Chamber- (Skinner box) a small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific
response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled
- main response made available is pressing a lever mounted on the side wall
- cumulative recorder- creates a graphic record of response and reinforcement as a
function of time
o pen moves according to pattern  response = upward movement
Reinforcement Contingencies- the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead
to the presentation of reinforcers
Acquisition:
- uses shaping (consists of the reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a
desired response)  used for animal training
- organism does not, on its own, emit the desired response
- responding gradually increases because of reinforcement, possibly through shaping
Extinction:
- resistance to extinction- occurs when an organism continues to make a response after
delivery of the reinforcer has been terminated
- responding gradually slows and stops after reinforcement is terminated
Stimulus Generalization:
- discriminative stimuli- cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the
probable consequences (reinforcement or non-reinforcement) of a response
- responding to a new stimulus as if it were the original
Stimulus Discrimination:
- responding does not increase in the lack of presence of new stimulus that resembles the original
discrimination stimulus
Reinforcement:
Primary Reinforcers- events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs
Secondary Reinforcers- (conditioned) events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being
associated with primary reinforcers
Schedule of Reinforcement- determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the
presentation of a reinforcer
Continuous reinforcement- occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforces
Intermittent Reinforcement- (partial) occurs when a designated response is reinforced only
some of the time
- organisms continue responding longer after removal of reinforcers when a response has been
reinforced only some of the time
4 Types of Intermittent Schedules:
Ratio Schedules: require the organism to make the designated response a certain number of times
to gain each reinforcer (more rapid)
Fixed-Ratio (FR) schedule- reinforcer is given after a fixed number of non-reinforced responses
Variable-Ratio (VR) schedule- reinforcer is given after a variable number of non-reinforced
responses
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