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Midterm

PS260 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Psych, Lexical Decision Task, Iconic Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS260
Professor
Todd Ferretti
Study Guide
Midterm

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Cognitive Psych
September 13, 2010
Cognitive Psychology
oScience of mental life, both in phenomena and their condition
Our prof—The scientific study of skills and knowledge—how they are acquired,
stored, transformed, and used
Representation/structures
oThe knowledge we possess, information we have in memory
Static structure—never changing
Dynamic structure—always changing
oDifferent memory systems
Processes
oOperations performed on internal or external stimuli
Creating new memories
Transforming information
Updating and reinterpreting
oDonders
Had ppl to react as quickly as possible when they were touched
(simple reaction time)
Measure the response time
Second task, choice reaction
Only respond if right foot is touched
Have to make a decision
Measure time for choice, then simple
Choice is longer
oStructuralism
Wundt
Simple vs higher psychical processes
Introspection
Isolate, describe the basic building blocks of cognition
Giving different stimuli, tell what they were thinking about
how they felt
Not very informative as it is very subjective
Not all our processes are conscious
Implicit- conscious, explicit-unconscious
Study conscious mental events
Minimal interpretation
Problems
Assumes all processes/product of cognition available to
consciousness
No objective testability
oEbbinghaus
Learning curve

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Forgetting over time
Memorize nonsense
No prior learning can influence the memory, no
associations
How many trials it took measured
Ability to recall decline overtime
Most forgetting in the first hour
How long it takes to relearn the information
oRelearn in fewer trials than original
oFunctionalism
William James
Primary vs secondary memory
Short term and long term/ primary and secondary
Dark Attic full of stuff that you aren’t currently thinking about,
once light is shone on it, object becomes part of primary memory
Best measure of short term memory
7 +/- 2 is not the best
Actually smaller
oKohler
Insight in problem solving
Sum is greater than the individual parts
Study whole not different elements
Give apes a problem, hang bananas
Too high for them to get to, over time they used materials in the
cage to complete the task
Suddenly get up and do something that solves the problem= insight
oBehaviourism
Watson and Skinner
Only stimuli and responses matter
oBartlett
Emphasis on memory as reconstructive process
When you encode you construct an interpretation of an event
Remember= reconstructing the event
Therefore things will change, forget something, change
them
oDuncker
Functional fixedness
View an object not part of the problem
Cant think of using it another way
Nailing candle to the wall problem attaching two strings etc
oModern influences, how behaviourism fell
Chomsky
linguistics

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Distinction between competence and performance
Children understand more than they can produce/ talk
Emergence of information science
Measure info
Info needs to be better than the static
Computers
Allows you to put info in, store, retrieve , and transform
Metaphor for human information processing
oBirth of Cognitive Psychology
Needed method to study unobservable cognitive processes with
objectivity of behaviourism
Cant replicate experiments, because of introspection
To do this: Transcendental method by Immanuel Kant
How could the observed state of affairs have come about
oWork backwards from effects
oCauses?
oExplanation
oConclusions based on unobservable events
oCognitive Revolution
Mid 1960’s
oThemes
Systems/structural
Structuralist
Different memory systems
Different system can be distinguished on basis of their
different characteristics and cortical locations
Functionalist
Different processes involved with encoding and retrieval of
information
Memory processes assumed to be similar to perceptual
process
Remembering is an active constructive process
September 15, 2010
Visual (Iconic Sensory Memory)
oSensory memory for visual system
oEchoic
Auditory system
oSegner first documented in 1740
Spin wheel, coal looks like a continuous circle when spinning
Memory that lasts 10th of a second
Duration of iconic memory is 100ms
oSaccade
The quick movement of the eyes from one location to another
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