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PS260 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Semantic Network, Implicit Memory, Episodic Memory

Course Code
Todd Ferretti
Study Guide

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Oct 25, 2010
Long term memory: forgetting
oManner in which it is lost
Forget very rapidly at first
Then less and less
Younger memory traces are more vulnerable to forgetting
oRate of forgetting does not vary with degree of original learning
Stronger and weaker original memories forgotten at same rate
Learn repeated items to greater extent
Forgetting rate would be the exact same if it was presented
Memories fade over time without use
Something has to happen over time to cause the decay
Absence of rehearsal, lose neural connection associated
Earlier memories interfere with later
More lists someone has learned the more difficult it is to
recall the last list
Later memories interfere with earlier memory
Encoding specificity Hypothesis
Cannot retrieve some memories because do not have
appropriate or specific cue
Original learning
oVery stagnant
oGood cues for memory
Non cued
oGradual decline
oApprox the same or bit better with right cue
Decay vs interference
Interference has much greater effect
More games = more interference
Same as STM
oOver load retrieval cues
Retrieval depends on cues

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If too many events are associated with same cue, more difficult to
find memory
Self Relevance Effect
oMore relevant the adj were rated the better they were recalled
oWell learned info can be retained over much of our life
Amnesia following trauma
oRetro disrupts info from before the event
oAntero disrupts info after the event
oSevere epilepsy
oRemove parts of hippocampus
Greatly reduced seizures
oCould not learn new info
Anterograde amnesia
Explicit memory effected
Implicit vs Explicit
oPatients show normal implicit memory
oPricked patients on hand when shaking upon meeting
oPatient cant remember him the next day but not shake hand
Amnesia and Implicit Memory
oKorsakoff’s have impaired explicit
oWomen with amnesia asked to dial phone number
Ends up calling mother
oProcedural implicit memory still intact
November 1, 2010
Fred Bartlett
oMemory should be studied in natural circumstances
oNo lists of words
oPeople don’t describe the same thing the same way
Barletts Methods
oRepeated reproduction
Ask the same person to describe the same event at different times
oSerial reproduction
Many people to transmit the material
oBoth show same thing
oRetelling changes over time
Changes over recalls
Info gets lost
Illogical is often forgotten

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Make sense of story
Make inferences to help make sense
oDominant themes
Some themes are dominant, anchor point
Reconstructive Memory
oAdd personal knowledge of world to help guide recall
oThe angry raisins/ grapes of wrath
Loftus and Palmer / eyewitness testimony
oEstimate of speed of cars based on the harshness of the verb
oWas there any broken glass? (there was none )
oMore people in smashed group said there was
Misinformation effect
oSubjects see slides depicting an auto accident at an intersection
oTest 1: did another car pass the red Datsun while it was stopped at the
yield sign
For one group makes sense, there was a sign in the image they saw
25% who didn’t see a sign say they did.
Mcloskey and Zaragoza
oInconsistent info makes them more inaccurate
Hyman, husband and Billings
oContact parents and ask for descriptions of actual events that occurred
when subjects were kids
oAsked subject q;s about events
oAlso asked about false events
oForm of interference
oSource confusion
oWarning subject that there is misinformation reduces this effect
Integration of Prior Knowledge
o½ the name was Hitler
oRecognition test
5 mins to 1 week later
14 sentences, ½ old
5 mins
Very accurate
1 week
Subject who read martin still very accurate
Subjects who read Hitler confused thematically related new
sentences with old
oWhen people have prior info they are going to use for reconstruction
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