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Study Guide

PS260- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 27 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS260
Professor
Todd Ferretti
Study Guide
Final

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WLU
PS260
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: The Science of the Mind
Working memory: The storage system in which information is held while that information is
being worked on. All indications are that working memory is a system, not a single entity, and
that information is held here via active processes, not via some sort of passive storage.
Formerly called short-term memory.
Representation: the knowledge we possess, or the information that is in our memory. Static
and dynamic.
Paul Kolers argued that what is kept in memory following an experience is not a record of the
details of that experience but rather a record of the processes used during that experience - in
his view, the processes are the structure
William James (1890) defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena
and their conditions.
lric Neisser (1967; Cognitive Psychology) wrote in the first text devoted to the study of cognitive
psychology: "Cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed,
reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used"
Cognitive psychology is the study of skills and knowledge-how they are acquired, stored,
transformed, and used.
Psychophysics: the systematic study of the relation between the physical characteristics of
stimuli and the sensations that they produce.
Process: an operation on an external stimulus or on an internal representation.
Span test: A poedue used fo easuig okig eoy’s holdig apaity. I ee
studies, the operation span test is used.
Working-memory system: A system of mental resources used for holding information in an
easily accessible form. The central executive is at the heart of this system, and the executive
then relies on a number of low-level assistants, including the visuospatial buffer and the
articulatory rehearsal loop.
Central executive: The hypothesized director of the working-memory system. This is the
component of the system that is needed for any interpretation or analysis; in contrast, mere
stoage of ateials a e poided y okig eoy’s assistats, hih ok ude the
control of the central executive. Also see executive control.
Articulatory rehearsal loop: One of the low-level assistants hypothesized as being part of the
working-memory system. This loop draws on subvocalized (covert) speech, which serves to
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create a record in the phonological buffer. Materials in this buffer then fade, but they can be
refreshed by another cycle of covert speech.
Subvocalization: Covert speech in which one goes through the motions of speaking, or perhaps
forms a detailed motor plan for speech movements, but without making any sound.
Phonological buffer: A passive storage device that serves as part of the articulatory rehearsal
loop. The phonological buffer is one of the mechanisms that are ordinarily needed for hearing.
In memory rehearsal, however, the buffer is loaded by means of subvocalization. Materials
within the buffer then fade, but they can be refreshed by new covert speech under the control
of the central executive.
Concurrent articulation task: A requirement that a research participant speak or mime speech
while doing some other task. In many ases, the peso is euied to say Tah-Tah-Tah oe
ad oe, o oe, to, thee, oe, to, thee. These poedues oupy the usles ad
control mechanisms needed for speech, so they prevent the person from using these resources
for subvocalization.
Cognitive neuroscience: The study of the biological basis for cognitive functioning.
Anarthria: A disorder characterized by an inability to control the muscles needed for ordinary
speech. Anarthric individuals cannot speak, although other aspects of their language
functioning are unimpaired.
Neuropsychology: The branch of psychology concerned with the relation between various
forms of brain dysfunction and various aspects of mental functioning. Neuropsychologists
study, for example, amnesia, agnosia, and aphasia.
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