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PS262 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gustav Fechner, Receiver Operating Characteristic, Electric Shock

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Elizabeth Olds
Study Guide

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PS 262 Exam Review
Chapter 1: Introduction
Perceptual Process
o Sequence that works together to determine our experience of and reaction to stimuli in
the environment
o Stimulus
What is out there in the environment, what we actually pay attention to and
what stimulates our receptors
Impinges on your sense
All of the things in our surroundings that we can potentially see
On the Receptors
Look directly at an object and it creates an image on the receptors of
the retina ( line back of the eye)
o Sensory Cue
Signal that can be extracted from sensory input
State of some property in the world
o Integrating information
Actively interpret the environment
Work with senses and knowledge
o Electricity
Electrical signals that are created by the receptors and transmitted to the brain
Transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy
Receptors create electrical energy in response to light
Signal activates other neurons which activate more, eventually activate
the brain
One neuron actives others
Neural processing
o Interaction between neurons
o Brain turns signal into perception of image
o Experience and Action
Perceive, recognize and react to stimuli
Conscious sensory experience
Experience of seeing the image
Ability to place an object in a category that gives it meaning

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Visual Form Agnosia
o Inability to recognize whole objects
Motor activities such as moving the head or eyes and locomoting
through the environment
Perception often leads to action
o Knowledge
What we bring to the perceptual process
Categorization of objects
Data-based processing (bottom-up)
Based on incoming data
Knowledge based process (top-down)
Sensory Ques
o Taking aspects of the environment to figure out what something is
Psychophysical Approach
o How we use info from the environment to create perceptions
o Gustav Fechner
Use of quantitative methods to measure relationships between stimuli
and perception
Any measurement of the relationship between stimuli and perception
Physiological Method
o How are properties of objects in the environment represented by activity in the nervous
Relationship between stimulus and physiology
o Activity in the brain
Units of processing
o Relationship between nerve impulses and specific perceptions
o Gap between two neurons
o Presynaptic neuron communicates with post synaptic neurons
by sending information
o Spontaneous activity level
Resting rate of firing without stimulation
Activation increase fire rate about spontaneous rate
Inhibition decrease firing rate
o Localization of function
Where in the brain particular info is processed
Sensory coding
How features of environment are represented

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o Specific
Neurons codes for certain features
o Pattern
Firing codes for a feature distributed over many
o Techniques
If a part of the brain is removed, and a particular ability disappears ,
then that part of the brain is normally involved in this ability
Single-cell recording
Specify response properties of singles neurons
Present stimuli and measure
Able to give functions for broader areas of the brain
Activity in brain = perceptual tasks
o Measuring the relationship between stimuli and physiological processes and between
physiological processes and perception
o Measure electrical responses in the nervous system
o How are properties of objects in the environment represented by activity in the nervous
o Which neurons are fired and when?
Cognitive Approach
o Neisser
2 directions of info processing
o Construct perception by analysing info falling on receptors
o Starts with analysis of high-level info
o How the knowledge, memories, and expectations that people bring to the situation
influence their perception
o Looking at the brain similarly how info processing is in computers
Phenomenological method
o Asks person to describe what he or she is perceiving or to indicate when a particular
perception occurs
September 20
Perceiving things that aren’t there
o Perception is not direct
Perception can be different from physical stimulus
o Tables both same size
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