[PS263] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 74 pages long Study Guide!

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30 Mar 2017
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PS263
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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What is Neuroscience?
Neuroscience: is the study of the nervous system
Neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neurophysiology, and biopsychology
Biopsychology, is the study of the biology of behavior
Can be split into six sub-areas
Physiological psychology: the nervous system is directly manipulated, within a controlled
laboratory setting.
The manipulations that the researchers perform include lesions, stimulation, and recording.
A second subdiscipline within biopsychology is psychopharmacology. The setting is similar to that
for physiological psychology, but here the manipulations are pharmacological.
Researchers are concerned with the effects of different drugs on behavior, and with the ways
in which these effects are mediated by the brain
Research can be 'pure' (theoretical) or it can be applied
Applied research is common because the implications of these studies have clear relevance
for issues such as substance abuse or the therapeutic use of psychoactive drugs
Neuropsychology is the third sub-discipline.
The study of behavioral deficits produced by brain damage in humans
Subjects are humans so researchers have little control over the lesion in question
Most studies are correlational investigations or case studies. One focus of neuropsychology is
applied and centers around the patient: neuropsychological tests that can facilitate
diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle counselling.
Psychophysiology, the recording of physiological responses of humans in behavioral experiments.
Non-invasive techniques include ECG, EEG, and GSR.
The fifth sub-discipline is cognitive neuroscience, which is a new field that relies to a great extent
on functional brain imaging techniques.
As the name implies, this sub-discipline is concerned with the study of cognition; that is,
higher intellectual processes such as memory, thought and attention
The sixth sub-discipline is comparative psychology, which is the study of the evolutionary and
genetic factors contributing to behaviour.
Research in behaviour genetics and the evolution of language
Although biopsychology can be subdivided into six relatively cohesive component fields, these
fields do not exist in isolation from each other. The strongest scientific claims are those made with
the support of more than one kind of biopsychological research.
Need evidence from many areas of neuroscience
The study of Alzheimer's disease: where neuropsychological techniques can be used to investigate
the behavioural consequences of memory deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients, while
psychophysiological techniques allow for more direct measurement of the effects of this disease
What science are biopsychologist's studying: often they study the unobservable- making
inferences, based on observations of observable phenomena, about mechanisms that are hidden
from full view.
We cannot see the chemicals released by the nerve cells. We can only see their effects. Paradox
that although science is fundamentally observational in nature, it often has as its goal the
description or explanation of generally unobservable processes
This is called Scientific inference. That is, although we cannot observe the unobservable, we can
observe the effects of the unobservable. We can make inferences about what must be the
underlying processes at work, that caused these observable effects.
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Main purpose of nervous systems is to produce behaviours of some sort. The end goal of
neuroscience is to try to understand behaviour, because this is what nervous systems ultimately
produce.
As biopsychologists, we try to understand the neural bases of behaviour, but in order to do so we
must observe behaviour
http://www.chrcrm.org/en/true-story
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