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Midterm

PS264 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Big Five Personality Traits, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Autonomic Nervous System


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS264
Professor
Camie Condon
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 1
Instincts
oThomas Aquinas
oBiology
oBehaviour can be mechanical
oFreud
Group of instincts with own source of energy
Libido
Draw all energy from
Energy with one instinct increases become source of
tension
Drives
oLearning Theory
oWatson
3 innate emotional reaction
Fear, rage, love
oHull
Activation of drive leads to random behaviour, accidently
performing a response that reduces drive
After repeated reproduction a habit is formed
Behaviour= Drives x Habits
oSkinner
Not necessary for a drive to be reduced for learning to occur
Behaviour is under the control of external rewards
oBandura
Acquire new behaviour by observation and modeling
Needs
oThe energy, direction and persistence of behaviour are due to existence of
needs
oMaslow’s hierarchy for self actualization
oStrengthened through rewards
oFive factor model
Extraversion
Neuroticism
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness
Openness to experience
Food Preferences
oB
Unlearned preferences
Sweet and fatty
Also salty

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oL
Cultural preferences
What is available
oC
What is good for our health
Factor Analytic Theory
oFive factor model
oMurray and Maslow
oPeople characterized by their needs, different strengths of different needs
oOCEAN
Measure on continuum
oOpenness
to experience also called intellect characterized by having a wide
range of experiences valuing intellectual matters
oConscientiousness
characterized by productivity, ethical behaviour and responsibility
oExtraversion
outgoing, excitement seeking tendencies
oAgreeableness
warmth, compassion, sympathy
oNeuroticism
Sometimes referred to as emotional stability, book refers to it as
the negative, but this is not an accurate portrayal. It is
characterized by anxiety, and anger but also has dimension’s of
emotional regulation, motivation and interpersonal skills
oHierarchy of motives
Physiological
Safety
Love and belongingness
Esteem
Self actualization
Maslow/ Needs Theory
oLittle empirical support
oSome needs are simultaneous
oBrightest and best
Darwin
oPrinciple of variation
Trait variation within a population
oPrinciple of natural selection
Environment selects trait that aids survival
oInstincts

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Inherited impulses that result in specific pattern of behaviour
Freud
oID
Base instinct for fight, flight, food and fornication
Unconscious
Pleasure principle
oEGO
Responsible for maintaining order
oSuperego
Moral development
Volition
oFree will
oCan do or become anything you want
o1. Construct new self through goal setting; not limited by bio or enviro
o2. limited by bio or enviro
o3. self regulation of behaviour
we can learn to do things to change but nothing major
Motivation
oTo be moved
oHas multiple causes
oVoluntary
Psychological Domain
External
Approach
oDo something out of want or desire
Hot/ cool theory (book)
Hot- limbic
oGo, fast, easy, emotional
oAccentuated by stress
oApproach
oLittle thought process
Cool- frontal
oKnow, hard, slow, attenuated
by stress
oAvoid
Avoidant
oDo something to avoid something else
Defined in terms of a specific goal
Tend to be compelling
Aversive difficult to ignore
Evolutionary perspective
Usually involves some threat to
survival
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