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PS264 Study Guide - Final Guide: Motivation, Sensation Seeking, Explanatory Style

Course Code
Camie Condon
Study Guide

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PS 264
Chapter 11: Positive Emotions
March 14, 2011
o Lazarus
Reasonable progress towards a want or desire
o Operational
How people feel
SWB, subjective well being
o To be thankful, greatful thinking
o Happiness high extroversion, negatively to neuroticism
o Linked to BAS/BIS
o Left prefrontal- happy, positive emotions
o Endorphins from pituitary send message to hypothalamus
Suppress pain and increase euphoria
Social Relationship
o Positive affect
Sense of self efficiency, overall well being
2 aspects
Adaptive Behaviour
o Good health, professional success, confidence, relationships, resources
o Culturally based
o Flow
Being able to do something you like, no worry of criticism throw self into, not
judged. Challenges at all levels
Sense of accomplishment
o Coping
Reasonable progress to attain goal when something is in the way
o 4 feelings linked to happiness
Self esteem
Personal control/ self-efficiency
o Catecholamine
Reduce stress response
o Generalized expectancy that good as opposed to bad outcomes will generally occur
when one is confronted with problem
o Healthier, achievement link,

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o View all desired outcomes as attainable regardless of setbacks
Bio Component
o Adaptation
o Endorphins
o Thinking styles
o Failures external
o Belief you can attain goals, generate alternatives
o Pathway thinking
One or more goals
o Agentic thinking
Movement along chosen path
ABCDE Method
o Step1
Adversity, Belief, and Consequences
o Step 2
Distraction and Disputation and Energization
Agentic thinking
o Movement along chosen path
Avoidant Style
o pathways
o Related to happiness
Produces reward important for instrumental behaviour
Dopaminergic pathway
Active for happiness
Linked to neuroticism
Inactive for happiness
o Self- Concerned with people’s beliefs in their capabilities to mobilize the motivation,
cognitive resources, and courses
o Outcome- their beliefs about how satisfying it will be to achieve a certain goal
o Making reasonable progress toward the realization of a goal
Goal congruent emotions
o Facilitate and sustain the attainment of personal goals
comp system

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o Being able to do something you like, no worry of criticism throw self into, not judged.
Challenges at all levels
o prefrontal cortex allows them to manage and manipulate images
Seligman’s theory of hope and optimism
o Optimism grows out of people’s explanatory style.
o Regard setbacks failures, and adversity as temporary, as specific to a given situation
o Hope involves explanatory style in which problems are regarded as temporary and
specific to a given situation
o Optimism more inclusive
Set-point theory of happiness
o most believe changes in life circumstances do not have long-term effects on our
happiness. In fact this belief has been the dominant model of subjective well-
being: People adapt to major life events, both positive and negative, and
our happiness pretty much stays constant through our lives, even if it is
occasionally perturbed. predicts that winning the lottery, for example, won’t
make you happier in the long run. While a divorce or even a major illness will
throw your life into upheaval, over the long-run your happiness level will
eventually return to where it was at before. levels in fact do change; adaptation is
not inevitable and life events do matter. The most important variables are that not
all life changes are the same and that there are differences in the way that
individuals adapt to life changes.
The flow experience
o Happiness comes from doing things that are satisfying in themselves- intrinsic
o 1. Completely aware of everything they are doing
o 2. They are able to get immediate feedback
o 3. Feel that their abilities match the task before them
o Happiness not experienced during but occur strongly when finished flow activity
o Free of fear and anxiety
o Achieved by allowing oneself to become completely absorbed in an activity
o Setting aside ego and freeing self from distractions
o Activity become complete and total focus
o Need to increase its complexity so it will continue to challenge
Chapter 12
o New and is only new as long as there is info not fully processed
Exploration develops competence
Interest held longer= complexity
Theory of Exploratory Behaviour
o Optimal complexity
o Adaptation=accustomed to the stimuli
o Pacer range= consistent progression
o Effectance motivation
Positive Feedback Loop
o Novelty--. Develop Competence Motivates toward interaction familiarity
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