PS270 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Group Polarization

20 views2 pages
Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS270
Professor
Page:
of 2
Ian Shaughnessy
Social Psychology Midterm 2
March 24th 2013
Deindividuated Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations
that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual
Conformity A change in behaviour or belief in accord with other
Normative influence Conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfil other’s expectations often
to gain acceptance.
Social Exchange Theory - The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to
maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s cost
Out-group homogeneity effect perceptions of out-group members as more similar to one
another than are in-group members; “They are all alike and we are diverse”
Obedience- A change of behaviour in accordance with a direct order from a figure of authority.
Factors that affect obedience include, the victim’s distance, proximity and legitimacy of the
authority figure, and institutional authority.
Types of conformity
1. Public compliance Doesn’t change your underling beliefs
2. Private acceptance Does change your underling beliefs
Why do people conform?
1. Normative Influence: Wanting to be liked
-Public vs Private
-Higher conformity when public
2. Informational Influence: Wanting to be right
-Higher conformity when task is difficult
-Higher conformity when more concerned about being right
3.
Prejudice A negative belief or way of thinking in relation towards someone or something based
on limited facts
Stereotype The way you represent something which may apply to a prejudiced belief
Discrimination Physical action or behaviour directed towards someone
Low ball technique When a person who agrees with an initial request will still comply when
the ante is raised. (ie someone agrees to buy a car from a salesman will also pay for any
additional fees like winter tires)
Foot in the door Phenomenon Setting someone up for a large request by first getting them to
agree to a smaller one first
Door in the face technique when someone starts with an unreasonable request to set them up to
ask for what they really wanted (ie child asking for 5 cookies and parents says 2 is fine. The
child only wanted 2 when he first bargained)
Attitude Inoculation Involves exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when a
stronger attack comes, they will have defenses available. (ie saying to drugs in school will
prepare kids to say no in real life)
Social power the potential to influence, while resisting influence from others.
1. Coercive power (taking something away or punishing others)
2. Reward power (money)
3. Legitimate power (authority figure such as a cop)
4. Expert power (ability to influence others based on expertise and knowledge)
5. Referent Power (power based on a high level of identification with, admiration of and respect
for an individual)
Social Facilitation Is the strengthening of dominant responses owing to the presence of others.
However, the presence of others can still hinder performance.
Group polarization when member’s pre-existing tendencies are enhanced by being within a
group. This facilitates the risk-shift phenomenon on which group discussion will promote more
risky decision making.

Document Summary

Deindividuated loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual. Conformity a change in behaviour or belief in accord with other. Normative influence conformity based on a person"s desire to fulfil other"s expectations often to gain acceptance. Social exchange theory - the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one"s rewards and minimize one"s cost. Out-group homogeneity effect perceptions of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members; they are all alike and we are diverse . Obedience- a change of behaviour in accordance with a direct order from a figure of authority. Factors that affect obedience include, the victim"s distance, proximity and legitimacy of the authority figure, and institutional authority. Types of conformity: public compliance doesn"t change your underling beliefs, private acceptance does change your underling beliefs. Why do people conform: normative influence: wanting to be liked.