PS270 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Group Polarization
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Social Psychology Midterm 2
March 24th 2013
Deindividuated – Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations
that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual
Conformity – A change in behaviour or belief in accord with other
Normative influence – Conformity based on a person’s desire to fulfil other’s expectations often
to gain acceptance.
Social Exchange Theory - The theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to
maximize one’s rewards and minimize one’s cost
Out-group homogeneity effect –perceptions of out-group members as more similar to one
another than are in-group members; “They are all alike and we are diverse”
Obedience- A change of behaviour in accordance with a direct order from a figure of authority.
Factors that affect obedience include, the victim’s distance, proximity and legitimacy of the
authority figure, and institutional authority.
Types of conformity
1. Public compliance – Doesn’t change your underling beliefs
2. Private acceptance – Does change your underling beliefs
Why do people conform?
1. Normative Influence: Wanting to be liked
-Public vs Private
-Higher conformity when public
2. Informational Influence: Wanting to be right
-Higher conformity when task is difficult
-Higher conformity when more concerned about being right
Prejudice – A negative belief or way of thinking in relation towards someone or something based
on limited facts
Stereotype – The way you represent something which may apply to a prejudiced belief
Discrimination – Physical action or behaviour directed towards someone
Low ball technique – When a person who agrees with an initial request will still comply when
the ante is raised. (ie someone agrees to buy a car from a salesman will also pay for any
additional fees like winter tires)
Foot in the door Phenomenon – Setting someone up for a large request by first getting them to
agree to a smaller one first
Door in the face technique – when someone starts with an unreasonable request to set them up to
ask for what they really wanted (ie child asking for 5 cookies and parents says 2 is fine. The
child only wanted 2 when he first bargained)
Attitude Inoculation – Involves exposing people to weak attacks on their attitudes so that when a
stronger attack comes, they will have defenses available. (ie saying to drugs in school will
prepare kids to say no in real life)
Social power – the potential to influence, while resisting influence from others.
1. Coercive power (taking something away or punishing others)
2. Reward power (money)
3. Legitimate power (authority figure such as a cop)
4. Expert power (ability to influence others based on expertise and knowledge)
5. Referent Power (power based on a high level of identification with, admiration of and respect
for an individual)
Social Facilitation – Is the strengthening of dominant responses owing to the presence of others.
However, the presence of others can still hinder performance.
Group polarization – when member’s pre-existing tendencies are enhanced by being within a
group. This facilitates the risk-shift phenomenon on which group discussion will promote more
risky decision making.
Deindividuated loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster anonymity and draw attention away from the individual. Conformity a change in behaviour or belief in accord with other. Normative influence conformity based on a person"s desire to fulfil other"s expectations often to gain acceptance. Social exchange theory - the theory that human interactions are transactions that aim to maximize one"s rewards and minimize one"s cost. Out-group homogeneity effect perceptions of out-group members as more similar to one another than are in-group members; they are all alike and we are diverse . Obedience- a change of behaviour in accordance with a direct order from a figure of authority. Factors that affect obedience include, the victim"s distance, proximity and legitimacy of the authority figure, and institutional authority. Types of conformity: public compliance doesn"t change your underling beliefs, private acceptance does change your underling beliefs. Why do people conform: normative influence: wanting to be liked.