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PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Sympathetic Nervous System, Canadian Mental Health Association

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Kathy Foxall
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
The Mental Health Professions
Clinical psychologist
Counselling psychologist
School Psychologist
Psychological Associate (MA)
Social workers
Marriage & family therapist
What Is Abnormal Behaviour?
1. Statistical infrequency
2. Violation of norms
3. Personal distress
4. Disability or dysfunction
1. Statistical infrequency
)f person has symptoms that are statistically rare we say it’s a disorder
2. Violation of norms
Norms change over time
Norms vary from one society to another
Is what is deemed by society to be normal always appropriate, fair, just, and reasonable?
E.g. drapetomania disorder during slavery times, medial docs came up with terms for slaves who tried to escaped (wanted to be
3. Personal distress
Is being distressed always a sign of pathology? no
If someone does not feel distressed, could it be reasonable to say that they have a mental disorder? - In certain cases Ex. Bipolar
having a manic episode
4. Disability or Dysfunction
If a person has symptoms that interfere with ability to carry out life
Diagnosis by an expert
Experts are not infallible
Experts are subject to political and social pressure
Thomas Szasz: Mental illness is a myth
Used to control and change people
People may suffer from problems in living, not mental illness.
Extreme view not widely held
History of psychopathology
Major psychological disorders have existed in all cultures across all time periods.
Three dominant traditions include supernatural, biological, and psychological
Prehistory & later times
Supernatural causes
Trepanation (also known as trephining
Alternative explanation Skulls found with holes deliberately made but skull healed
Practice to put hole in skull to let out evil spirit
Prehistoric people recognized disease and tried to take out tumor, depressurize skull, ect
Mental illness and the supernatural
Spirit possession
Consorting with the devil or demons
Being a witch
Causing misfortune to befall others
Mass hysteria in the middle ages
People in common areas would break out in dancing because they felt the desire too and wouldn’t be able to stop
Mass hysteria
Crosses for graves, happened in period where people were dying of the plague
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Thought that this dance was the cause of this (stress reaction)
Brain supply contaminated by toxin like LSD, causing abnormal behaviour
Pits with poisonous snake pits in sanitariums
Dunking people in water sometimes drowning
Vince Lampert is a Catholic priest in the U.S. who was trained as an exorcist
Physician Paracelsus (1500s)
Movement of stars and the moon
Not supported by evidence
Conditions in asylums
Horrific conditions in many mental institutions in Europe
Chained to walls, treated worse than animals
Tortured with treatments
Some early Treatments
1st chair designed to calm person, person strapped down with box on head
2nd person spun around constantly, dizzy,
Bloodletting cut persons vein and bleed them
Chaos and confusion
In Bethlam
Narrow room with windows on side, visitors would pay money to come see psychiatric patients like animals
Philippe Pinel
In France medical doc
Hired to improve conditions in psych hospitals
Unchained people
Felt that people didn’t need to live in institutions for the rest of their lives
Towns people afraid of this
He was attacked by angry towns people - One of the patients he freed rescued him
Moral therapy and the mental hygiene method
William Tuke
Quaker who built hospitals positive environment
Benjamin Rush
Hospital should be humane
He first invented chair
Dorthea Dix
Influence in Canada and USA
Noticed many patients were mentally ill and put mentally ill patients in jail in hospitals
North America
Worked to bring positive change in asylums
The discovery of Treponema pallidum in 1905 and the biological tradition
Many in the asylums in the early 20th century were in the advanced stages of syphilis
General Paresis of the insane
Discovered that there was a bacteria that caused syphilis
Tertiary syphilis can cause a lot of neurological eventually become paralyzed
Often infecting someone with malaria cured syphilis (early treatment)
The Biological Tradition
Biological treatments
Surgeries, medications
Hysterectomy, teeth extraction
Sometimes they would take out patient’s teeth because if you have infected teeth the infection can go in your brain
Thousands performed into the 1960s.
Used to make people with mental disorders easier to manage
Took something like ice pick by going through eye sockets and move pick around
Made them unmotivated and apathetic
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Kept doing this because they didn’t use research to see what happened to peoples brain function
The Psychological Tradition: Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychoanalytic psychotherapy
Hidden intrapsychic conflicts
Free association, dream analysis
Psychoanalytic theory
Unconscious mind
Id, ego, superego
Defense mechanisms
The Psychological Tradition: Humanistic Theory
Carl Rogers
Person-centered therapy: peer support lines
Unconditional positive regard
Abraham Maslow
Hierarchy of needs
Fritz Perls
Gestalt therapy
People have potential to be strong and positive, successful and creative
You need good environment to get this
The behavioral approach - Watson, Skinner
Came up with idea of classical and operant conditioning
The Scientific Method and an Integrative Approach
Psychopathology is multiply determined (variety of factors contribute to this)
Reciprocal relations between
Biological, psychological, social, and experiential factors
The Mental Hospital in Canada
Provincial psychiatric hospitals
Milieu therapy being in a positive environment
Community treatment orders (CTOs)
If person has committed crime related to mental condition, person may be released in to society if they abide by a few
Attitudes Toward People with Psychological Disorders
Canadian Mental Health Association (CMHA)
Treatment and Prevention
Evidence-based treatments
Community psychology emphasis in improving peoples everyday environment, providing resources in community
Most hospitals are gone due to deinstitutionalization
When drugs came out to treat these disorders, these patients were able to come live in society
Most of these people are living in high poverty
Chapter 2: An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology
The search for causes of abnormal behaviour
There are practical implications if we can find causes in this field
We want to:
1. Explain etiology
2. Identify the factors the maintain the behaviour
3. Predict the course of the disorder
4. Design effective treatments
Variety of theories
Many different theories about mental disorders have been proposed
Biological, psychodynamic, learning (which includes behavioral or cognitive-behavioral theories), cognitive, humanistic-
experiential, and socio-cultural
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