PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tricyclic Antidepressant, Monoamine Oxidase, Anxiety Disorder

2 views5 pages
14 Aug 2019
Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
-individuals who have experienced trauma are forced to integrate conflicting previous beliefs (ex the
world is a safe place) w discrepant realities of the trauma they have just faced (ex rape)
-thus individuals may alter pre-existing beliefs to reflect traumatic experience (ex the world is not safe)
-before antidepressants, benzos were most widely prescribed psychiatric meds (minor tranquilizers,
provide rapid, short term relief)
-benzos bind to GABA receptors and temporally inhibit activity broadly across neural sites, but have
side effects incl psychomotor and cognitive impairments
-benzos have significant addictive potential and may worsen anxiety symptoms in long-term
-Westra and Sherry argue exposure therapies increase self-efficacy by demonstrating that physiological
symptoms of anxiety are not harmful + anxiety-provoking situations can be managed despite feelings
-they showed benzos on as-needed basis are associated w increased hyperviligence for signs of threat
and decreased memory for psychoeducational material presented during CBT
-pharmacotherapy may teach their anxiety symptoms themselves are “pathological” / can only be
controlled by medication rather than advocating finding life problem solutions
-antidepressants (SSRIs) most used meds for anxiety, suggesting depression and anxiety have
neurologic similarities
-MAOs interfere w action of monoamine oxidase (enzyme which degrades norepinephrine and
serotonin) thus increasing number of these transmitters in the brain generally
-MAOIs once widely but have adverse effects on digestive and cardiovascular systems, are effective in
treatment of social phobia
-tricyclic antidepressants TCAs in more widespread use, block reuptake of serotonin + norepinephrine
-TCAs esp clomipramine are effective at treating OCD, side effects inc weight gain, blurred vision, dry
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
mouth, constipation
-azipirones elicit anxiolytic effects through serotonergic effects in addition to altering dopamine levels
-venlafaxine hydrochloride is newer antidepressant, particular effective when treating GAD, and acts to
increase serotonin but also norepinephrine and dopamine, and has fewer side effects than SSRIs
Cognitive Restructuring:
-based on idea that anxiety + other emotional disorders are partly due to faulty, maladaptive, unhelpful
thinking patterns (in anxiety = future-oriented and involve themes of imminent / looming threat)
-overestimate probability/severity of threats (risk) and underestimate ability to cope (resources)
-goal is to help them develop healthier, more evidence-based thoughts and adjust imbalance b/w
perceived risk and resources
-thought records help patients understand relationship b/w what they are thinking and feeling
-therapists use Socratic approach: asking number of questions to query and evaluate beliefs and
behaviours that contribute to anxiety
-collaborative empiricism: therapist + patient operate as team to conceptualize patient's difficulties and
modify their beliefs, also use “behavioural experiments”
-ex belief that one will be rejected if one initiates social interaction can be tested behaviourally
-hot cognitions (Greeberger & Padesky): deeper cognitive change occurs when elicited cognitions are
also connected to emotionally charged responses
Exposure Techniques:
-exposure is main therapeutic ingredient across all psychological interventions for anxiety
-facing anxiety-provoking stimuli = extinguish fears, new coping skills, significant cognitive change as
new evidence that is discrepant from belief is accumulated, provides opportunity for new learning
-strategies: expectancy violation, deepened extinction (combine fears), remove safety behaviours,
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.