PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Adrenal Gland, Thyroid, Endocrine System

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14 Aug 2019
Endocrine system:
-CNS interacts w endocrine system in feedback loop that maintains appropriate levels of hormones
circulating in bloodstream
-in response to feedback indicating circulating levels of sex hormones/steroids are low, CNS activates
hypothalamus which secretes “releasing” hormones that in turn activate the pituitary gland
-increased levels of circulating sex steroids alert hypothalamus and pituitary to shut down this activity
-hormones secreted by pituitary (“master gland”) influence hormonal production in the adrenal gland
and testes (in males) and the ovaries (in females)
-andrenocorticotrophic hormone helps the body handle stress
-cretinism: dwarflike appearance and mental retardation is result of defective thyroid gland
-hypoglycemia: pancreas fails to produced balanced levels of insulin or glycogen, mimics anxiety
-thyroid dysregulation has been associated w variety of psychiatric symptoms (ex anxiety and
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis:
-activated in response to stress + involves communication b/w hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal cortex
-release of stress hormone cortisol into bloodsteam by adrenal cortex, which facilitates response to
short-term threat by producing changes (increased intracellular glucocorticoid receptors, which leads to
anti-imflammatory effects)
-chronically activated in many individuals diagnosed w depression and anxiety
-Hobbes (1600s) said aggression + self-interest inerent in human; political systems should restrain and
usefully channel these impulses
-by 19th century it was widely believed that all people took their biologically allotted place in society
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