PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Manfred Sakel, Cesare Lombroso, Emil Kraepelin

69 views3 pages
14 Aug 2019
School
Department
Course
Professor
Development of Modern Views:
-by 18th century, due to anatomical examinations of cadavers of mad patients + discoveries regarding
the nervous system, mental disorders came to be viewed as disruptions in nervous system functioning
-Cabanis (1757-1808) combined psychological and somatic factors and provided first clear theoretical
basis for moral therapy (later became psychotherapy)
-Viennese physician Benedict Augustin Morel (1809-1873) was the first to propose that deviations
from normal functioning are transmitted hereditarily and progressively degenerate over generations
-Darwin's notion of inheritence natural selection led support to theories that proposed inherited base for
human functioning and led people to try to identify potential criminals/madmen before becoming them
-Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909): criminality = inherited, identified by shape of skull (phrenology)
-Emil Kraepelin published Clinical Psychiatry (1883) which attempted to classify mental illness, but he
believed all mental disorders were biological + untreatable (certain groups of symptoms = syndromes)
-Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840-1902) suggested general parasis of insane (GPI / neurosyphilis) may
be acquired through infection; now known to result from untreated infections by syphilis spirochete
-spirochete moves from genitals to bloodstream, brain/spinal cord + decade later manifests symptoms
(mania, euphoria, graniosity at first, then deterioration of brain functioning (dementia), then paralysis)
-somatogenesis: confirmation that GPI caused by infection built confidence in view that all mental
disorders would soon be found to be caused by biological factors
-Julius von Wagner-Jauregg (1890) injected GPI patients with tuberculin or typhus and got good but
unreliable results, thus tried malaria to induce fever more reliably to kill the syphilitic spirochete
-it has been known since antiquity that shocks could produce recovery from mental illness
-Manfred Sakel used insulin-comas (1920s) to manage morphine withdrawal, then for schizophrenia
-by 1944 Slater & Sargen's psychiatric textbook listed insulin-coma as first choice treatment
Unlock document

This preview shows page 1 of the document.
Unlock all 3 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.