PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Reticular Formation, Peripheral Nervous System, Neurotransmitter

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14 Aug 2019
Biological Models:
-borrow model from medicine and co-opt the language (clients = patients, problems = symptoms/
syndromes, response to problems = treatment)
-biological theories implicate dysfunctions in or damage to the brain (CNS), peripheral nervous system
(ANS or SMS), or malfunctioning of endocrine system
-activity related to particular function not located in single area of brain but concentrated in 1+ areas
-dementia in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's linked to loss of and ineffective functioning of brain cells
-current theories emphasize neurotransmitters more than actual neuronal damage
-dopamine (pleasure seeking, exploratory behaviours) and serotonin (constraint or inhibition of
behaviour) act to create a balance in behaviour
-certain neurons more sensitive to certain neurotransmitter and cluster together to form brain circuits
Hindbrain: directs functioning of ANS (controls internal activities ex digestion, heart rate, breathing)
Midbrain: centre of reticular activating system (controls arousal levels, sleep-wake centre, attention)
Forebrain: controls sentient functions; thought, speech, perception, memory, learning, planning
Abnormal behaviour can result from neurotransmitter system disturbances because:
(1) there may be too much or too little of neurotransmitter produced or released into synapse
(2) there may be too few or too many receptors on dendrites
(3) there may be excess or deficit in the amount of the transmitter-deactivating substance in synapse
(4) reuptake process may be too rapid or too slow
-all of these can cause too much excitation or too much inhibition in the particular brain circuits
-schizophrenia thought to result from too much activity in dopamine brain system that mediates the
importance we attach to stimuli in environment (that patient experiences his or her world as
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