PS280 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Hemorrhoid, Quiet Life, Soranus Of Ephesus

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14 Aug 2019
Prehistoric concepts of abnormality:
-Stone Age people used trephination (cut holes in skull whule alive) to let out evil spirits
-early Egyptians believed brain was site of mental activity but functioning was disrupted in mad people
by demonic possession and used magic to treat (mix of natural + supernatural assumptions)
-hunter-gatherer societies viewed physical and mental disorders as caused by supernatural, used trances
Greek and Roman Thought:
-Golden Age of Greece = natural causes for mental disorders were emphasized (Pericles, 495-429BC)
-Hippocrates (father of modern medicine) believed physical and mental disorders had natural causes,
thought dreams were important, advocated quiet life, veg diet, exercise, abstinence from alcohol
-Hippocrates also suggested bleeding or vomitig to balance bodily humours, and was first to describe
hysteria (conversion disorder) + said it occurred in women bc of wandering uterus
-Plato placed more emphasis on sociocultural influence, suggested dreams satisfy desires, anticipated
modern notions of legal insanity, and advocated for kind treatment of patients + conversational therapy
-Aristotle accessed Hippocrates' humours, denied influence of psychological factors, + advocated
humane treatment of mental patients
Methodism (around 300BC, prominent figure = Soranus of Ephesus, 100AD):
-mental illness results from constriction of body tissue or relaxation of tissues due to exhaustion
-mania caused by overexertion, licentiousness, alcoholism; head was primary site of affliction
-advocated natural bloodletting (hemorroids, menstration) for prevention strategy
-said all problems arise from body (no mind-body distinction, thus rejected Hippocrates)
Romans (assumed control of ancient world, carried on work of the Greeks):
-Galen continued Hippocrates' work and suggested 2 sources of mental disorder; mental and physical
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