PS390 Study Guide - Final Guide: Psychology Today, Edward B. Titchener, Margaret Floy Washburn
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LESSON 5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
1. Describe key figures, key concepts, and key contributions of early natural science
19th century physiologists were first to demonstrate experimentally that there is a link between
neuromuscular functions, perceptual processes, and mental operations. This led to the emergence
of a scientific psychology. In 1867, William James proclaimed that Psychology should become a
science in its own right, describing the interface between the nervous system and consciousness.
Titchener argued that only hypotheses derived from experimentation are legitimate, and his
doctrine of experimentally derived observations remains the bed rock of current methodology in
Psychology. Pavlov's early work with dogs established conditioning principles still influential in
2. Describe the social and intellectual context for Psychology’s emergence.
When Psychology emerged, psychological thought pervaded cultural atmosphere. There were
widespread health and mental problems due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. The
public desired explanations and practical applications of scientific discoveries and seemed to
yearn for a new relationship to the mind. As a result, natural-science Psychology became
institutionalized due to a need for the social management of the public. Government and
companies believed applied science was essential for economic development, and the discipline
of Psychology found funding from society's leaders.
3. Describe the status of women in early Psychology.
The social and scientific concensus at the time was that women were biologically and
psychologically inferior. As married women could not be employed, many had to choose either