PS100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Francis Bacon, Unconscious Mind, Wilhelm Wundt

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13 Dec 2016
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Psychology Review
Sunday, October 2, 2016
5:24 PM
Chapter 1.1:
Psychology- The science of studying mental processes and behaviour, additionally how is each influenced by
psychobiology of the organisms as well as the effects of the external environment (Early psych used the primary
method of exploring internal mental processes to observe outward behaviour, our observable actions, and make
inferences or guesses, about our mind).
Mental processes describe the activity of our brains when we are engaged in thinking, processing information
and using language.
Goals of Psychology
1. Description (What, No inference)
2. Explanation (Why, Causes of behaviour)
3. Prediction (When, Causes/ effect)
4. Control (Change condition, manipulate to bring desired outcome)
Levels of Psychology
Brain- Mental processes (How brain structure and brain cell activity differ from person to person and situation to
situation)
People-Behaviours (How the content of the individual's mental processes form and influence behaviour)
Group- Actions or interactions between people (How behaviour is shaped by the social and cultural
environments)
Chapter 1.2:
History
Psychology started with Greek philosophy (Knowledge, reality, nature and meaning of life)
Greek philosophers developed method of introducing problems and questioning proposed solutions
Myths- stories of forgotten origin that seek to explain or rationalize the fundamental mysteries of life and are
universal, which is common to all cultures.
They seek to explain topics such as the reason for earthquakes, why crops are poor or plentiful, how
human came to be
Theorists believe that myths developed into some systems of religion, and that they reflect an innate
human need to understand and make sense of people and the natural world
Philosophers
Hippocrates- disease had physical and rational explanation not caused by evil spirits/ punishments of God
Influenced by excess or lack of bodily humours/ humourism (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black
bile). Determine response to environment, personality/character and individual well being
He was the first to recognize importance of good food, fresh air and rest
Argued brain=metal (thoughts, ideas/feelings came from the brain not heart)
Socrates and Plato-Body and mind are distinct (mind continues to function after body dies "truth lies in the
mind and knowledge was innate"-exists from birth)
Socrates- "essence of human nature" try to identify why something is beautiful, what essential
factors
Plato- He was Socrates student and he hypothesized that certain concepts were pure and signified
ultimate reality. Used reasoning to uncover core ideas deeply imbedded in every human soul
Aristotle - discussed first important theories of sensations, dreams, sleep, and learning
o First to promote empirical, testable investigation of all objects and creatures
o Concluded before Charles Darwin that humans are closely related to animals
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Psychology Comparisons
Wundt- breakdown and define basics of consciousness (thought and structure)
Aristotle searched for basic purposes of objects and creatures
Hippocrates- physical/ rational explanation for disease and not evil
Excess or lack of bodily humours (brain-metal)
Socrates-essence of human nature (why?)
Plato- Core ideas deeply embedded in human soul
Francis Bacon- Tabula Rosa (knowledge comes with experience/ empiricism)
John Locke
Feshner- Research/ Proof
Johanres Muller-study relationship between physical stimuli and psychological effect
Hermon von Helmhotte- speed of nerve impulse and movement linked
Rene Descartes- truth of natural world understood through math and science
Point of contact between brain and body was pineal gland
James Mark Baldwin- First psych lab in Toronto
Chapter 1.3:
Wilhelm Wundt- opened a lab in Leipzig, Germany, dedicated exclusively to the study of psychology. He
believed that the study of mind and behaviour ought to be conducted using the experimental methods of other
sciences such as chemistry and physics.
Exposed research participants to simple, standardized, repeatable situations and then asked them to make
observations
An approach similar to the one used in the study physiology
Studied content and processes of consciousness, the awareness of immediate behaviours and mental
processes
Consciousness broken into basic elements "atoms" of the mind
Voluntarism- Refers to voluntary and willful acts of decision in human behaviour. Used to distinguish between
automatic and controlled actions and perceptions.
Schools of Thought
1. Structuralism (Titchener)- Introspection (try to identify structures of the conscious mind, self-observation
such as feelings and sensations)
Different ideas passed on mood
Proved unreliable because regardless of how systematic an observation was, structuralists were not
always able to agree
2. Functionalism (William James)- Purpose of mental processes rather than simply focusing on its structure
(adapt/ survive)
Behaviour-can study a broader scope
Used a variety of empirical methods that focused on the causes and consequences of behaviour
Highlighted differences among individuals rather than identifying only those characteristics that they
shared
Emphasized need for research to include animals, children, and persons with mental disorders in
order to understand both normal and abnormal psychological functioning
Example: Participants were asked to point to the location of a sound.
Structuralist- asked each participant to provide an introspective report of her conscious experience of the
sound
Functionalist- more concerned with issues like how accurately participants could point in the direction in
which the sound was physically located
Gestalt Psychology
Whole experience (organized ideas)- when you look at a computer screen you see complete pictures
instead of thousands small pixels
Chapter 1.4:
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Sigmund Freud- Viennese neurologist (studied hysteria), suggested that many of our thoughts and feelings exist
beyond the realm of awareness, in the unconscious.
Conscious mind was only the tip of the intellectual and perceptual iceberg
Unconscious mind did not exert enormous influence on behaviour
The root cause of patient's maladies was mental and not physical
Childhood experiences help set the stage for later psychological functioning by contributing to effective or
ineffective interaction among conscious and unconscious forces
Children unconsciously adopt social and moral norms frim their parents and in turn develop
conscious awareness of what constitutes acceptable and unacceptable expression of their internal
desires
Psychoanalytical Theory-Human mental processes are influenced by the competition among unconscious forces
to come into awareness.
Behaviourism
A branch of psychological thought arguing that psychology should study only directly observable behaviours
rather than abstract mental processes
Early psychologists focused on relationship between stimuli and responses
Ivan Pavlov discovered that conditioning linked various animal behaviours to events in the animal's
environments (Dog's salivation)
Description vs. Explanation
Reinforcement- learning processes that increases the likelihood a given response will be repeated (positive
or negative)
Punishment- an experience that produces a decrease in a particular behaviour
The Major Perspective in Psychology Today
Psychoanalytic- Interactions between the conscious and unconscious mind govern virtually all behaviour;
childhood experiences set the stage for later psychological functioning.
Behaviourist- Only observable behaviour can be studied scientifically. Perspective focuses on stimulus-
response relationships and the consequences for behaviour.
Humanist- People can be helped to realize their full and grand potential, which will inevitably lead to their
positive psychological growth.
Cognitive- Mental processes are using an information processing (means by which information is stored
and operates internally) model (inputs/outputs).
Neuroscience/Psychobiological- Psychobiological functions are explained primarily in terms of their
biological foundations.
Evolutionary- Behaviour and mental processes are explained in terms of evolution, inheritance, and
adaptation.
Cultural- Study of how cultural practices shape psychological and behavioural tendencies and influence
human behaviour (Cross-cultural psychology is the study of what is generally or universally true about
human beings regardless of culture).
Cultural Universality- Behaviours and practices that occur across all cultures
Branches of Psychology
Academic psychology- focuses on research and instruction in the various areas or fields of study in
psychology (developmental psychologist- child development).
Applied psychology- applying psychological principles to practical problems in other fields, such as
education, marketing or industry (sports psychologist).
Counselling and Clinical psychology- study of abnormal psychological behaviour and interventions
designed to change that behaviour.
Shared values between the three branches above: Theory driven, empirical, multi-level, contextual.
Current Trends in Psychology
Growing diversity
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