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Psychology Day 3.docx

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Lawrence Murphy

Psychology Day 3 Monday, September 17  Two movements that were influential on Psychology o Humanist Psychology o Feminist Psychology Humanist Psychology  Was created to counteract the movement of psychology from being very pessimistic and negative  Prompted self help such as 10 tips to a successful marriage  Humanists felt that other perceptions were dehumanizing our society  Emphasized personal growth and human potential  Rejected psychoanalysis and behaviourism  Emphasized creativity, free will and resilience  They were behind the idea and development of positive psychology which focuses on happiness, optimism and resilience  Interested not in the people who were born and raised in the ghetto and became drug addicts but by the people who grew up in the same situations and became decent honest people  What a human needs to become successful and decent people is one person who believes in them and cares for them and loves them Feminist Psychology  Approach that analyzes the influence of social inequalities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes  This approach: o Recognized male bias in research methods (using all men research groups, assuming men are normal and women are different) o Recognized cultural biases o Broadened research focus groups (so experiments were not done solely on middle class young white men) o Questioned research used to justify lower status disadvantaged groups What Psychologists Do  Three categories of professional activities for psychologists o Teaching and doing research in colleges and universities o Providing health or mental-health services (psychological practice) o Conducting applied research for non-academic settings (business, sports, government, law and military)  Two broad areas of research o Basic Psychology  “pure” research conducted to seek knowledge for its own sake o Applied Psychology  Finds practical uses for the knowledge gained from research  Some major non-clinical specialties in psychology o Experimental Psychologists: research learning, motivation, emotion, sensation, perception, physiology, and cognition o Educational Psychologists: search for ways to improve education system o Developmental Psychologists: study how people grow and change over time o Industrial Psychologists: study behaviour in the workplace (decision-making, employee morale, work motivation, etc.) o Psychometric Psychologists: design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality Psychological Practice  Practitioners that work in mental hospitals, general hospitals, clinics, schools, counselling centres, and private practice  Counselling psychologists: cover all issues that clinical psychologists do except rarely do diagnosis  School psychologists: work with parents and teachers to enhance performance, work with problem kids, work with mentally challenged kids  Clinical psychologists: diagnose, treat, and study mental and emotional problems  Most clinical psychologists have a PhD, EdD or a PsyD (doctorate in psychology)  4-5 years graduate work in psychology  1 year of internship  Memorial University is first in Canada to offer a PsyD  Clinical Psychologists are NOT: o Psychotherapists (anyone who does any kind of psychotherapy) o Psychoanalyst (individuals who have trained in and practice psychoanalysis) o Psychiatrist (you go to med school and become a MD [medical doctor] and treats as well as diagnoses mental disorders)  Others who treat problems in adjustment, family conflicts, etc. o Licensed Clinical Social Worker o Marriage, Family and Child Counsellors  Requirements vary between provinces, but typically include a master’s degree in psychology and 1-2 years supervised experience Future of Clinical Psychology  Concerns raised about: o Number of psychotherapists and counsellors who are unschooled in research methods and empirical findings in psychology o TOO MANY PEOPLE WHO HAVE NO EXPERIENCE WORKING IN FIELD o Use of unvalidated therapy techniques o These are techniques that work for 15% of people because of the placebo effect o Lowering of standards for clinical programs o Some clinicians calling for collaboration between researchers and clinicians Regulation and Psychological Research, Training and Practice  Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) formed in 1939 o Advances in psychological research  Publishes journals  Sponsors conferences o Promotes and regulated psychological education o Supports practice of psychology in Canada Psychology in the Community  American Psychological Association o Psychology’s largest professional organization o 53 divisions of psychology o Includes major areas (developmental, physiological) ex: American Aboriginals Division o Many specific research or professional interests o Sports, psychology of women, ethnic minority issues, Arts, military training, opinion polls, animal behaviour, legal issues, gay issues Biology, Culture and Psychology  Many areas collaborate due to: o Understanding of biology’s influence on behaviour  Ex: neuropsychology, social neuroscience, cognitive neuropsychology o New understanding of culture’s influence on behaviour  Cognitive psychologist consider cultural influence on achievement, problem solving and test performance  How does our culture impact our achievement and performance  All areas of psychology have distinct differences  All areas of psychology share common interest in understanding human behaviour and the human mind Psychology Day 4 Chapter 2 Lecture: Wednesday, September 19 How do Psychologists do Research  Research allows psychologists to separate reliable information from unfounded beliefs  Good research done by psychologists allows you to make better decisions as opposed to sloppy research or anecdotes in regards to your medical health (you see through false claims) What Makes Psychological Research Scientific  Scientist does not mean that they have cool gear they have to do with procedures they use to come to a conclusion  Key characteristics of ideal scientists 1. Precision  Most investigations begin with a theory- an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations  Theories are often tentative pending more research in psychology  From this theory scientists develop a hypothesis (their prediction of a relation prior to empirical testing)  The hypothesis may be very general to start but is refined prior to testing, this hypothesis eventually becomes a prediction  Key terms to a prediction are given operational definitions- a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined  It also separately defines each term so we know what it is  This could mean a score on a particular test 2. Skepticism  Being a skeptic is key, even if it means questioning assumptions believed by everyone else, this means treating conclusions with caution  We do not accept ideas based on faith or authority  This does not mean operating with a closed mind 3. Reliance on empirical evidence  An exciting new idea must be backed by empirical evidence  Anecdotes or personal recounts of events are insufficient  Empirical evidence can be gathered through a variety of research methods 4. Willingness to make “risky predictions”  Principle of Falsifiability- the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation (must predict what will happen and what will not)  this forces a scientist to take negative evidence seriously  we often are misled by confirmation bias which means we only pay attention only to information that confirms our beliefs  This can lead us to reject any argument of our evidence 5. Openness  Science depends on the free flow of ideas therefore there is no secrecy  This allows for replication of studies which is essential to verify findings  This rules out the chance of a fluke being determined as fact  Peer review is a process that ensure scientific standards are met and provides a check of a theory, it is anonymous  Good science is linked to critical thinking guidelines  This is not always the way scientists operate as they are very proud of themselves  Passion is the fuel of progress  But passion can lead to fraud and deception  This is why findings are posted to public journals which acts as a jury scrutinizing evidence Deceptive Studies: Establishing the Facts  Researchers use representative samples- a group of individuals selected from the population for study which matches the population on important characteristics to complete studies  Size is less critical than representativeness  Descriptive method- methods that yield descriptions of behaviour but not necessarily causal explanations, includes the following:  Case Studies o Detailed description of a particular individual based off observation o Most commonly used by clinician (psychologist, psychotherapist) o Often used in preliminary stages of an investigation or if cultural reasons prevent another method o Advantage- illustrate principles in a way stats never could o Disadvantage- missing information from individual and hard to interpret o Disadvantage- case writer could be biased o Disadvantage- subject could lie or have partial memory  Observational Studies o The observation measure and recording of behaviour o Differs from cases by using multiple subjects o Does not rely on memory but measurement and counting o May happen in an everyday place like bars but is done discreetly without the knowledge of others this is known as naturalistic observation o The opposite is known as laboratory observation where observational studies are done in controlled environments  The disadvantage of laboratory observation is people may behave differently knowing they are being watched o Disadvantage of both naturalistic and laboratory- it describes behaviour but does not explain it  Tests o Procedure used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities and values o Characteristics of a good test incl
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