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Chapter 14,15,16 EXAM NOTES.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Mindi Foster

Chapter 14- Personality 12/7/2012 8:22:00 AM  Personality- refers to distinctive patterns of behavior, mannerisms, thoughts, motive and emotion that help to characterize an individual over time and across different situations.  Comes from work PERSONA- meaning actors mask  Traits- habitual ways of behaving, thinking and feeling (shy, outgoing, friendly, confident) Psychodynamic Personality Theories (FREUD)  Sigmund Freud  Movement of psychological energy within a person in the forms of- attachments, conflicts and motivations  Conscious: whatever you are aware of  Preconscious: out of your awareness, but can be recalled (long-term memory)  Unconscious: PRIMARY- motivating force of behavior, includes repressed memories, instincts, and wishes that were never allowed into consciousness.  Structure of personality  ID- present at birth. Avoids pain and encourages pleasure. Includes sexual instinct (libido) and death (aggressive) instinct. (Devil) o Too controlled by id= impulsive and selfish  EGO- puts reins on the id’s desire for sex and aggression. Both conscious and unconscious- “reason and good sense”-Reality (Real Guy) o Too controlled by ego= unable to balance personal needs and wishes with realistic limitations  SUPER EGO- voice on conscience (morality). Good feelings of pride when you do something right. Miserable feelings of guilt and shame when you do something wrong. Conscious, but largely unconscious. (Ideal Angel, Ultimate Best) o Too controlled by superego= rigid, moralistic and bossy  Defense Mechanisms  Unconscious, protect us from conflict and anxiety. o Repression  When a threatening idea, memory or emotion is blocked from consciousness o Projection  Taking your own unacceptable or threatening feelings and putting them on someone else o Displacement  Direct emotions towards things, animals or other people (mostly anger) o Regression  Moves backwards to a previous stage of psychological development. (When adults are under pressure, they become immature) o Denial  Refuse to admit that something unpleasant is happening to protect self-image.  Psychosexual Stages of Development  Sexual energy taking different forms as a child grows older.  Each stage produces frustration, conflict and anxiety. If not resolved, children become fixated or stuck at that stage o Oral Stage:  1 year of life  experience world through mouths  As adults: smoking, overeating, nail biting, chewing on pencils. Clingy and dependent, like a nursing child. o Anal Stage  2-3 years old  toilet training and control of bodily wastes  As adults: anal retentive, obsessive about neatness and cleanliness- or- complete opposite (messy and disorganized) o Phallic (Oedipal) Stage  Most critical  3-5 or 6 years old  unconscious wishes to possess parent of opposite sex and get rid of parent of same sex.  Oedipus Complex- resolved at age 5 or 6 and personality is formed  “penis envy”- o Latency Stage  Non sexual o Genital stage  Puberty  Believes your personality is shaped by how one progressed through the early psychosexual stages Psychodynamic Personality Theories (OTHER)  Carl Jung  All humans share a vast collective unconscious  Collective unconscious- universal memories and experiences of man kind represented in symbols, stories and images (archetypes)  Archetypes- universal symbolic images found in myths, art, stories and dreams  Identify extroversion/introversion  Melanie Kleins  Object relations school- find a balance between need for independence and need for others. How we react to separations later on in life are determined by our experiences in the first year or two of our life. (disagreements, leaving home for the first time, divorce and death)  “false self”- only develops parts of personality that the mother likes  Object in object relations is due to a mental representation of mother, not human mother  Opposite of freud, thinks both sexes firt identify with the mother, then girls can stay that way and become an extension of the mother, while boys break off to gain masculinity. Problems with Psychodynamic Theories  Violating principle of falsifiability  Impossible to disconfirm and therefore, not scientific  Drawing universal principles from experiences of a few patients  Generalized from a few individuals  Basing theories of personality on the retrospective accounts of adults  Worked backwards. Modern Personality Study  Personality Tests  Objective tests (inventories) o Standardized questionnaries o Look at different aspects of personality- needs, values, interests, self-esteem and emotional problems  Behavioral Assessment o Observe  Gordon Allport  Said most of us have 5-10 central traits (ways of behaving, reacting to new situations, dealing with others)  Also, we have secondary traits- more changeable aspects of personality (music, habits, opinions)  CATTELL **  Factor analysis: causes material to clump into little balls. Identify clusters of correlated items that measure a common underlying factor.  COSTA and McCRAE (Neo-Pi-R)  Created 5 CENTRAL FACTORS (The Big 5) o Extroversion vs introversion  Outgoing or shy o Neuroticism vs emotional stability  Negative emotionally  Extent a person suffers from anxiety, inability to control impulses, feelings of anger, guilt and resentment.  Neurotic individuals are worriers, complainers and defeatists (without a real problem) o Agreeableness vs antagonism  Good natured or irritable  Cooperative or abrasive  Secure or suspicious and jealous  Friendly relationships or hostile ones o Conscientiousness vs impulsiveness  Responsible or undependable  Persevering or quick to give up  Tidy or careless o Openness to experience vs resistance to new experience  Curious, imaginative, questioning and creative or conforming, unimaginative, and predictable  Problems with the Big 5 o Do not provide the complete picture of personality o Missing mental disorders (psychopathy, self-absorption, obsessionality) o Missing important traits (religious, dishonesty, humorousness, independence and conventionality) o People do agree it covers the core key of personality Personality and Genetics  Costa and McCrae- social class, educational opportunities, religious training, parental love and discipline have NO substantial influence on personality.  Genetic predisposition doesn’t imply genetic inevitability. The gene will not become present unless a certain environmental stress or circumstance activates it.  Measured in 3 ways  Studying personality in other species  Studying the temperaments of human infants and children  Heritability studies of twins and adopted individuals  You don’t have to be a person to have a personality  Hereditary and Temperament  Babies are born with genetically determined temperaments (psychological dispositions that respond to the environment)  Soothability (how easily the baby is calmed) o Outgoing and curious as infant o Easy going and extroverted throughout childhood  Reactivity (how excitable, arousable or responsive a baby is) o At 4 months- fearful, excitable, nervous o 7 years- anxiety, afraid of kidnapping, sleep with light on  Temperaments are the clay in which personality traits are moulded  Heredity and Traits  Heritability- proportion of the total variation in a trait that is attributable to genetic variation  For the big 5- heritability is 5.0  Personality and Environment  Situations  People behave different with their parents than they do with their friends  People can have a stable set of traits and their behavior can change in different situations  Reciprocal Determinism- two way interaction between aspects of the environment and of the individual in shaping personality traits.  Nonshared environment- experiences that are not shared with other family members  2 most powerful influences of environment: parents and friends o Parents (Proved wrong because of…)  The shared home environment has little influence on most personality traits  Only nonshared environment has an impact  Few parents have a single child rearing style that is consistent over time and that they use with all their children  Parent’s aren’t consistent, despite their trying o Parents do help with values, skills, religion, masculinity/femininity, help stay in school etc o Peers  Non shared environment  Children do what they can to conform to the norms and rules of their immediate peer group Culture and Personality  Effect behavior, attitudes, rules, values, beliefs  Individualist Cultures: individual instead of group (I am outgoing, agreeable..)  Self is independent from group  Individual and personal goals are priority  Value independence, leadership, achievement  Collectivist Cultures: group instead of individual (I am a son of a farmer)  Self is interdependent  Priority is on needs and goals of group  Value harmony, duty, obligation and security  For Japanese, Tachiba is important (harmony with others)  In America, we tend to value being true to yourself and having a core identity  IMPORTANT: Humans are affected by their culture, but vary within it Personality and Self  Humanist psychology  We determine our own actions and futures  Abraham Maslow o Psychology ignored the good things in life o Most important to personality: Self Actualization- a person who strives from a meaningful, challenging and satisfying life  Carl Rogers o How you behave is based on subjective reality o Need unconditional positive regard (love, support) to become fully functioning people o A parent can correct behavior without withdrawing love (conditional positive) –“I won’t love you if you do bad things” o Conditional positive causes suppression and denial of feelings and being out of touch with them  Rollo May o Believed in free will o Looked at difficult and tragic aspects of humans (loneliness, anxiety and alienation) o Existentialism- necessary for taking responsibility of our actions. Challenges human existence and death o We cannot escape loss and life  Narrative Approaches  Life narrative: story each of us develops over time o When we tell them, they shape our behavior, give us an identity, and motivate our goals  Freud and humanity: destructive drives, selfishness and lust  Maslow and Rogers and humanity: cooperation, selflessness and love  May and humanity: fear of freedom, loneliness and struggle for meaning. SUMMARY  Psychodymanic theory  Freud o Unconscious processes o Childhood experiences o Id (source of sexual energy-libido- and aggressive instinct) o Ego (source of reason o Superego (source of conscience and morality) o Defense mechanisms protect ego from unconscious anxiety  Repression, projection, displacement, denial and regression o Personality from psychosexual stages of development. Phallic stage is most crucial. Oedipus complex- desires opposite sex parent and rivals same sex parent o When Oedipus is resolved, child identifies with same sex parent and females get “Penis Envy” (feeling inferior)  Jung o Collective unconscious contains universal memories and images called archetypes (shadow =evil)  Object-Relations School- importance of first 2 years of life  Problems with psychodynamic o Principle of falsifiability o Overgeneralizing o Unreliable memory of adults (illusion of causality)  Modern personality studies  Tests that put personality into types are not reliable  Objective tests (inventories) are used  Gordon Allport- we have few central traits that are key to personality  Cattell- Factor analysis- clusters of traits that are basic components of personality  The big 5- most used  Genetics and Personality  Members of other species have the same characteristic as humans  The big 5 is evolutionary, can be used on any species  Temperaments are inborn. Soothability and reactivity.  From twin and adoption studies, heritability is 5.0 of genetic influences.  Environment  Socio-cognitive learning theory: personality results from interaction with environment and aspects of individual called reciprocal determinism  Personality and the non shared environment are important  Shared (parental) environment isn’t important because o Behavioral-genetic studies say o Few parents have consistent parenting o Even if they are consistent, little relation btwn what they do and how the children turn out  Cultural  Heavily influenced by culture  Individualist cultures vs collectivist cultures  Cultures vary from cleanliness to notions of time  Male aggression- influenced by economic requirements a man grows up in. Culture. When should violence be used?  The Inner Experience  Humanist psychology- sense of self and free will  Maslow- peak experiences and self actualization  Rogers- unconditional positive regard  May: exsistentialism  Life narrative Chapter 15- Psychological Disorders  Defining Mental disorder  As a variation of cultural standards  As emotional distress o In terms of a person’s suffering  Behavior that is self-destructive or harmful to others o Disruptive, dangerous or out of touch with others  Mental Disorder: any behavior or emotional state that causes a person to suffer, is self destructive, seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others or endangers others or the community. CLASSIFYING AND DIAGNOSING DISORDERS  Use the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) it provides descriptive, clear diagnostic categories so researchers and clinicians can agree on disorders and how to treat them  Major Diagnostic Categories in the DSM-IV o Diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence- mental retardation, ADD, developmental problems o Delirium, dementia, amnesia and other cognitive disorders- resulting from brain damage due to syphilis, Alzheimer’s o Substance related disorders o Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders o Mood disorders- depression, bipolar o Anxiety disorders- GAD, phobias, panic attacks, PTSD, OCD o Eating disorders- Anorexia, bulimia o Dissociative disorders o Sexual and gender identity disorders- transsexualism, premature ejaculation, unable to orgasm, sadomasochism o Impulse control disorders- stealing, violent rages o Personality disorders- antisocial, paranoid  Clinicians evaluate patients according to 5 axes or dimensions  The primary clinical problem (ex depression)  Ingrained aspects of personality that affect ability to be treated (neuroticism, bitterness)  Medical conditions or medications that may contribute to the problem  Social and environment stresses that can make the disorder worse (job or housing troubles)  Patients overall functioning in work, relationships and leisure time (recent or long time problem)  Problems with the DSM  Danger of over diagnosis o ADHD has become the fastest growing disorder since added to DSM  Power of diagnostic labels o The label sticks  Confusing serious mental disorders with normal problems o Everyday problems compared to disorders (“shopping addiction”) may be troublesome in extreme cases  Illusion of objectivity and universality o Decision on including a disorder are not based on empirical evidence but on a group consensus.  Advantages of the DSM  Improves reliability of diagnosis  Helps clinicians distinguish among disorders that have over lapped symptoms in order to provide most appropriate treatment  Diagnosing  Starts when patient arrives at the office, hospital or clinic. Observed in the waiting room  Projective tests o Ambiguous pictures, sentences or stories that the test takers interpret or complete o Lack reliability and validity o Answers are extremely affected by sleepiness, hunger, medication, worry, clinicians instruction and clinicians personality (friendly, mean) o Rorschach Ink Blot test  Objective tests o Standardized questionnaires that ask about feelings/behavior o MMPI (Mississippi multiphasic personality inventory) has 10 scales looking for depression, paranoia, schizophrenia, and introversion. Also includes validity scales ANXIETY DISORDERS  Generalized anxiety disorder:  continuous, uncontrollable anxiety or worry that is not caused by use of drugs or disease.  Symptoms: difficulty concentrating, irritability, jitteriness, sleep disturbance and unwanted, intrusive worries  Can be caused by abnormalities in the amygdala (core of fear) or prefrontal cortex (ability to realize when danger has passed)  Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Insomnia, agitation, jumpiness are normal after trauma. If they happen for more than one month and begin to impair functioning, it becomes PTSD.  Symptoms: reliving trauma in recurrent, intrusive thoughts, sense of detachment from others, loss of interest in activities, insomnia, irritability, impaired c
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