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PS 100 Midterm 3 Review

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Don Morgenson

Psych Test #3 Prep January 25, 2010 Chapter 8 Language and Thought • Cognition o The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge • Language o The symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages o 4 key properties  Language is symbolic • Represents objects, actions, events and ideas • Flexible, same word used for different things  Semantic • Meaningful • Arbitrary, no relationship between the look and sound of the word and the object  Generative • A limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate words • You make up sentences that have never been said before • Comprehend sentences never heard before  Structured • Sentences can be structured in a limited number of ways o Structure  Phonemes • The smallest speech unit in language that can be distinguished perceptually • Humans can only distinguish about 100 basic sounds • English has 40  Morphemes • The smallest unit of meaning in a language • 50, 000 in English • Includes roots, prefix, and suffix  Semantics • The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations • Denotation: dictionary • Connotation: emotions  Syntax • System of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences • A sentence must has a subject and a verb o Child progress  Learn the rules of syntax very fast  1-5 months: reflexive communication  6-18 months: babbling  10-13 months: first words  12-18 months: one word sentence  18-24: vocabulary spurt  2 years: 2 word sentence  2.5 years: three word sentence  3 years: complete simple active sentence structure  3.5: expanded grammatical forms  4: years: five word sentences  5 years: well developed and complex syntax  6 years: metalinguistic awarness  Fast Mapping • Process by which children map onto an underlying concept after only one exposure  Overt Extension • When a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to  Under Extensions • When a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than is meant to be  Telegraphic Speech • Content words; articles, prepositions, and less critical words are omitted • Give doll  MLU ( mean length of utterance) • The average length of youngsters’ spoken statements (measured in morphemes)  Over-regularizations • When grammatical riles are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply • Goed, hitted  Metalinguistic awareness • The ability to reflect on the use of language  Largest strides age 1-5  School age, begin to play with language, puns and jokes  6-8 irony o Learning 2 languages  Bilingualism • Acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary and grammatical rules  Acculturation • The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture  Age is very important, younger is better, best before age 7  Better u til age 15  Motivation and attitude also affect  Critical age is 13 • Theories of Language o Behaviourist  B.F Skinner  Verbal Behaviour (1957)  Children learn through imitation, reinforcement, and other ways of conditioning  Not reinforced, decline in frequency  Shaped until correct  Imitation and reinforcement for learning syntax o Nativist Theories  Noam Chomsky  Infinite # of sentences= impossible for it to be imitation  Children learn the rules  Inborn ability to learn language  LAD (Language Acquisition Device) • Innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language  Biologically equipped like how birds are able to fly  Comes at about the same pace for children o Interactionist Theories  Biology and experience  Cognitive • An important aspect of a more general cognitive development- maturation and experience  Social Communication • Functional of communication and the social context that it evolves in  Emergentist • Neural circuits are not pre-wired but emerge gradually in response to experience  Linguistic Relativity • The hypothesis that one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought • Problem Solving • Problem solving o Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable • Problems o Problems of inducing structure  Requires discovering the relationship among numbers words, symbols and ideas. o Problems of arrangement  Arrange the parts of a problem in a way that satisfies a criterion  Only one or few ways solve the problem  Insight • Burst of will usually lead to the correct solution o Problems of transformation  Carry out sequential transformations to reach a goal • Barriers to Problem Solving o Focus on irrelevant information  Leads people astray  People assume that all numerical information is important o Functional fixedness  The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use o Mental set  When people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past o Imposition of unnecessary Constraints  People come up with constraints that the problem doesn’t state • Approaches to a Problem Solving o Problem space  The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver o Trial and Errors  Trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works o Algorithm  Methodical step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem o Heuristic  Guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions  Narrows the problem space Chapter 9 Intelligence Testing - 2% of the pop. Have an IQ of 130+; 60% have 90-110 IQ - Culture fair IQ test (not culture free) - IQ = 20% environment + 80% genetics - IQ  multi-factorial  Generally stable unless environment drastically changes - Flynn (!984) every generation gains 15-20 pts in IQ o To explain the recent declining/stable IQ stats of countries, Flynn states that the IQ abilities of the generations today have simply reached a plateau Categories of Psychological Testing • Psychological test o Standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour • Mental Ability Test o Intelligence test  Measure general mental ability  Asses intellectual potential o Aptitude test  Asses specific types of mental abilities  Measure potential o Achievement tests  Measure mastery and knowledge or various subjects  What an individual can do now • Personality Test o Measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes o Personality scales o No right or wrong answers • Standardized test o The uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test o Everyone gets the same test no matter who they are or when they take it Psychom
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