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PS 100 Midterm 2 Review

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Don Morgenson

Psych Test #2 Class Notes Learning Theory • Learning o Permanent change in behavioural tendency resulting from reinforced practice • Learning Involves o Adjustment based on past experiences o Acquisition of new knowledge o Simple associations o Creation of more complex belief systems o Your own efforts lead to changes in what you think and believe • How do we learn? o Intent  Drive x Study Habits  Motivation, making an effort o Rewards and Punishment  Encouragement is better than discouragement o Knowledge of Results  Getting better by knowing correctness o Stress  Performance is best with some stress  Learning curve o Life Goals  Learn about things you are interested in Classical Conditioning Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations. • 11% prevalence rate of simple lifetime phobias. • Can be treated Learning: relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience • Acquisition of knowledge and skills • Shapes personal habits • Personality traits • Emotional responses • Personal preferences • Can be done by most organisms. Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment. Classical Conditioning • Type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus • Also known as Pavlovian conditioning • First seen by Ivan Pavlov in 1900’s • Studied dogs salvation when presented with meat powder • Noticed that eventually they start to salivate before the meat powder • Eventually had the dog conditioned to the sound of the bell Terminology • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) o Stimulus evoking an unconditioned response without prior conditioning • Unconditioned Response (UCR) o An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response • Conditioned Response (CR) o A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning • UCR and CR often consist of the same behaviour, with subtle differences • UCR CR =salvation, UCS=meat powder, CS= bell tone • Psychic reflex = conditioned reflex • Elicited (drawn forth) response, involuntary, automatic • Trial o Presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli o How many it takes to form an association • Immune resistance • Sexual arousal • Drug tolerance • Acquisition: Forming new responses o Initial stage of learning something o Depends on stimulus contiguity o Odd, unusual or intense stimuli are more likely to become CSs • Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses o The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone may lead to extinction o Does not lead to unlearning • Spontaneous Recovery o Reappearing from the dead o Reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus o Will happen if in the original environment where the acquisition took place o Renewal effect • Stimulus Generalization o Responding to the exact CS but also to other similar stimuli o When an organism that had learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Fear of a bridge leads to a fear of all bridges. • Stimulus Discrimination o When an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Discriminate between the original CS o The less similar the more likely one is to discriminate • Higher Order Conditioning o A conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus o Built on the foundation of already established CR • Watson & Reiner o Little Albert experiment o Conditioned young boy to be scarred of anything white and furry by banging a metal sheet every time he tried to touch it o Start of behaviourism Operant Conditioning/ Instrumental • Operant Conditioning: a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences • Started by B. F Skinner • Voluntary responses • Thorndike’s Law of Effect o Instrumental learning o Learning does not depend on thinking and understanding o If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. • Reinforcement o An event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response. o Strengthens the response • Operant Chamber/ Skinner Box o Small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled. o Operant responses are voluntary so they are emitted rather than elicited • Reinforcement Contingencies o Circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers o Manipulation whether positive contingencies occur when the subject makes the designated response • Response Rate o The key dependent variable • Cumulative Recorder o Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner Box as a function of time o Graphic summary of subject’s response over time. o Slope  Rapid response produces steep slope  Slow response produces a shallow slope • Shaping o The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response o Necessary when the subject does not emit the response on its own • Extinction o The response tendency decreases because the response is no longer reinforced o Resistance to extinction  The organism continues a response after delivery of the reinforcer has ceased • Discriminative Stimuli o Cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences of a response o Learn when to or not to initiate the response • Primary Reinforcers o Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs o Ties to physiological needs o Food, water, sex, warmth, and affection • Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers o Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers o Money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise, applause What they have in Common o Acquisition of the CR o Extinction of the UCS o Spontaneous recovery o Reconditioning o Generalization o Discrimination o Higher order conditioning o Response =Habit x Drive- Inhibition Schedules of Reinforcement • Schedule of reinforcement o Determines the occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer • Continuous Reinforcement o Occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced o Shape and establish a new response o Later move onto different schedules • Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement o Designated response is reinforced only some of the time o Leads to better long term effects o More resistant to extinction o Four types: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval • Fixed Ratio (FR) o The reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses o 1/10 • Variable Ratio (VR) o Reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses o Predetermined average o 1/10 on the average o Sot machines • Fixed Interval (FI) o Reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed o After first time must wait 2 mins before it will be reinforced again • Variable Interval (VI) o The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed o Time interval changes • Positive Reinforcement o A response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus o Good grades, pay cheques, scholarships o Being rewarded for doing well • Negative Reinforcement o A response i
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