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Psych 101 Exan Review

52 Pages

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Don Morgenson

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Psychology Exam Review Chapter 1  Young science, founded 1879 by Wilheim Wundt is it a science? 1. Complexity: is it possible for the grain to understand the whole system 2. Ethics: manipulation, deontologucal (never use humans), consequnetialism ( worth it, greater good) 3. Psychophobia 4. Context of human behavior is constantly changing Historical Precedent in Psychology • Anemism: objects inhabited by a spirit • Plato: rationalism , dualism (mind/body) • Aristotle: body works for the mind, observation and experiments, overt behavior • John Locke: mind a blank slate • Wilhiem Wundt o Structuralism o First Psych lab o After suffering illness probes own mind and experiences o Introspection: examine structure of mind o Mind and brain made of one structure • Structuralism o The structuralists believed that psychology should be about analyzing consciousness into its basic elements, just as physicists were studying how matter was made up of basic particles…to do this, Titchener and his followers relied on introspection, a process by which a person makes careful, systematic self-observations of one’s own conscious experience. o • Functionalism o Mind has one thing to do, function o Ability to adapt o 2 formal school of Psychology o Helps the organism to adjust to new situations o investigating the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure. • William James o Pragmatism o Mind help adapt to new environment • John Dewey oLearning by doing • Behaviourism (radical ) oPavlov, Watson and Skinner oOvert behaviour only oCan’t get into the mind oStimulus response oPavolov: dog and bell, conditioning oWatson: create any type of person through conditioning oSkinner: rewards and punishmen, reinforcing oNurture is the most important • Gestalt oConfiguration oBrain needs closure, don’t know what you did oWholsim rd o3 formal school • Psychoanalysis oWe are driven by unconscious impulses we don’t understand oFree association, say everything comes to mind and interpret • Humanistic Existential o3 force of psychology oReductionist approach oPut together not take apart oAnonymity, conformity, depersonalizes • Existential oFree oChoice oResponsibility • Biopsychosocial Model oTissues oMind oSocial context of your life oEach affects the other oMust understand all 3 oSomething physical will effect how you feel • Humanism oUnique qualities of people oFree will, potential for growth • Cognition oThinking or conscious experience oPiaget, Chomsky, Simon oUsed scientific method oNow the dominant perspective • Biological oPhysiological basis of behaviour in people and animals oFunctioning can be explained by bodily structures, and biochemical processes • Evolutionary oBehavior patterns have evolved to solve adaptive problems oNatural selection favours behavior that enhance reproductive success • Seven Major Research Areas in Psychology oDevelopmental : childhood, adolescence, adulthood oSocial Psychology: interpersonal behavior oExperimental Psychology: traditional core, oPhysiological : genetic factors oCognitive: higher mental processes oPersonality: consistency in behaviour oPsychometrics: measure behaviour and capacities • Four Major Areas of Applied Specialization oClinical oCounselling oEducational oIndustrial and Organizational Nature of Psychological Inquiry 1) Non reactive naturalistic Observation • Look and observe 2) Case Study • Intense study of one individual • Nomothetic: cohort or group • Idiographic: 1 person 3) Correlation • How two variables move Chapter 2 • Experimental o Scientific method o Self correcting o Quantifiable • Dependent Variable = behaviour • Independent = manipulation of factors o Function of stimulus: others o Organismic variable: you o Response variables: past effect present Chapter 3 o Basic components of the nervous system are nerve cells and glia cells o Glia cells are like glue, structure and insulation for neurons Neurons o Soma/ Cell Body: cell nucleus o Dendrites: specialized branches that receive information o Axon: long fibers transmit signals away from the soma, to other neurons o Myelin Sheath: insulates, sometimes encases axon, speed transition of signals along axon, degeneration of this leads to Parkinson’s o Terminal Buttons: secret neurotransmitters o Synapses: gap between neurons, where information is transferred between neurons o Action Potential: brief shift in the electrical charge that travels along the axon, all the same size, all or nothing o Absolute Refractory Period: minimum time after AP where a AP cannot occur o Resting Potential: stable neg charge, neuron at rest o Synaptic Cleft: space between terminal button and soma of another. Releases neurotransmitters o Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit info from one neuron to the next o Postsynaptic Potential: voltage change at receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane. Graded, vary in size o Excitatory PSP: positicve voltage shift increases the likelihood of PSP euron will fire an AP o Inhibitory PSP: negative that decreases o Reuptake : neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane 3 types of Neurons • Sensory/ afferent o Scent, touch, hearing • Motor/ Efferent o Glandular, muscular • Interneurons o Connect everything, interprets between sense and motor Characteristics of Neurons • Amino Acids • Specific • Many produce only one but respond to many Neurotransmitters (40) • Dopamine: schizo has too much, voluntary movement, pleasurable emotions, decreased linked with Parkinson’s, cocaine and amphetamines elevate their synapses • Aceticoline: muscular movements, skeletal muscle, attention, arousal, and memory, some stimulated by nicotine • Seratonin: mood, depressed= not enough, sleep, wakefulness, eating, aggression, OSD, • Endorphines: natural opiates in brain, when in pain these go up, resemble opiates, pain relief and pleasurable emotions • Much like lock and key will not go into any receptor site • Drugs that resemble are called agonists, some just block • Stored in vesicles Gross Functions • Motor Cotex (RH LH), paralysis • Somatosensory Cortex : senses, where strokes occur • Visual Cortex • Auditory Cortex: hear, what music means to us • Association Cortex: association fibres connecting brain together • Experience Cortex: recording function in temporal lobe Reticular Activating System • Small tissue below medulla • Alerts brain so you can respond in a coordinated way • Go into coma if not working Brain Hemispheres • Right controls left • Right Hemisphere: • Left Hemisphere: Ways of damaging brain • Head trauma: memory, brain damage • Stroke: clot or rupture in the brain Brain can Repair itself • High plasticity, compensation for missing parts • Collateral Sprouting o Healthy neurons near dead, reach out grow new branches (dendrites) to compensate • Substitution of Functions o Parts of the brain not need anymore (blind) so it will help in other areas, other senses more powerful • Neurogenesis o Grow more neurons o Still unsure if true • The brain will not be able to overcome a lot of damage Nervous System o Central Nervous System o Brain  Integrates information from inside and outside the body, coordinates actions, enables speech, thinking, memory, planning, dreaming etc o Spinal Cord  Connect the brain to body  Extension of the brain  Carries commands from bran to peripheral nerves, relays messages back to the brain. o Enclosed in meninges (meningitis is inflammation of this) o Bathed in Cerebrospinal Fluid, nourishes the brain , protective cushion, hollow cavities filled with (ventricles) o Peripheral Nervous System (nerves outside brain and spinal cord, extends outside the central) o Somatic Nervous System  Nerves that connects muscles and sensory receptors  Afferent Nerve Firbres • Axons carrying info to CNS from the periphery of the body  Efferent Nerve Firbres • Carry info out to the periphery of the body o Autonomic Nervous System  Connects heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands  Mediates autonomic arousal, fight or flight  Controls auto, invol, and visceral functions that people don’t think about = heart rate, digestion, and perspiration   Sympathetic Division • Mobilizes bodily resources for emergencies • Slows digestion, drains blood from the periphery, adrenaline prepares for exertion  Parasympathetic • Conserves bodily resources • Slow heart rate, reduce blood pressure, and promote digestion Brain Research Methods o EEG oMonitors the electric activity of the brain oUses electrodes on the scalp oIdentifies brain activity oBrain-behaviour relationship o Lesioning oObserves consequences of damage oDestroys piece of brain oInsert electrode burning tissue o ESB oSending weak e current into brain area, stimulating oObserve the effects o TMS oTemp enhance or depress activity in an area of the brain oVirtual lesions Brain Imaging o Computerized Tomography CT oComputer enhanced xray oShot from different angles oGives a horizontal slice oLook for brain abnormalities o Position Emission Tomography PET oExamines brain function oShoes blood flow and metabolic activity oColour coded map shows which areas are in use during certain tasks o Magnetic Resonance Imaging oMagnetic fields o3d image with high resolution ofMRI shows blood flow and O2 consumption in brain oshows areas of activity Functions and Parts o Hindbrain oCerebellum (little brain)  Back surface of brainstem  Coordination and equilibrium  Organizes sensory movement  Touch finger to nose when drunk oMedulla  Attached to the spinal cord  Unconscious functions, breathing, blood circulation, muscle tone, sneezing, coughing, salvation oPons (bridge)  Bridge of firbres connecting brain stem to the cerebellum o Midbrain oIntegrates sensory processes: vision, hearing oSystem of dopamine releasing neurons originates there oReticular Formation  Core of the brainstem  Modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing and pain perception  Sleep and arousal o Forebrain oThalmus  All sensory info except smell pass to get to the cerebral cortex  Clusters of soma  Integrates info from the senses oHypothalmus  Regulates biological needs  Hunger, thirst, sex drive, temperature  Controls autonomic system  Link between brain and endocrine system  oLimbic System  Emotion, motivation, memory and behaviour, optimism  Hippocampus • Memory,  Amygdala • Fear and emotions  oCerebrum  Complex thought  Surface called the cerebral cortex (outer layer of the brain)  Cerebral Hemispheres  Each is divided into four lobes • Right Hemisphere o Spatial skills • Left Hemisphere o language • Corpus Callosum o Connects the two hemispheres oOcciptal Lobe  visual oParietal Lobe  Somatosensory cortex  touch oTemporal Lobe  Auditory oFrontal Lobe  Primary motor cortex  Executive control system  Prefrontal cortex • Unknown Endocrine System o Glands that release hormones into the bloodstream o Hormones o Control centres : hypothalamus and Pituitary oControl body fuctions o Pituitary Glands oRelease hormones stimulate action in other endocrine glands o Sends messages through hypo and pit to adrenal glands o Thyroid Gland oMetabolic rate o Adrenal Gland oSalt and carb metabolism o Pancreas oSecretes insuline to control sugar met o Gonads oSex hormones to develop secondary sex characteristics Chapter 6 • Learning o Permanent change in behavioural tendency resulting from reinforced practice • Learning Involves o Adjustment based on past experiences o Acquisition of new knowledge o Simple associations o Creation of more complex belief systems o Your own efforts lead to changes in what you think and believe • How do we learn? o Intent  Drive x Study Habits  Motivation, making an effort o Rewards and Punishment  Encouragement is better than discouragement o Knowledge of Results  Getting better by knowing correctness o Stress  Performance is best with some stress  Learning curve o Life Goals  Learn about things you are interested in Classical Conditioning Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations. • 11% prevalence rate of simple lifetime phobias. • Can be treated Learning: relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience • Acquisition of knowledge and skills • Shapes personal habits • Personality traits • Emotional responses • Personal preferences • Can be done by most organisms. Conditioning: learning associations between events that occur in an organism’s environment. Classical Conditioning • Type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus • Also known as Pavlovian conditioning • First seen by Ivan Pavlov in 1900’s • Studied dogs salvation when presented with meat powder • Noticed that eventually they start to salivate before the meat powder • Eventually had the dog conditioned to the sound of the bell Terminology • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) o Stimulus evoking an unconditioned response without prior conditioning • Unconditioned Response (UCR) o An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) o A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response • Conditioned Response (CR) o A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning • UCR and CR often consist of the same behaviour, with subtle differences • UCR CR =salvation, UCS=meat powder, CS= bell tone • Psychic reflex = conditioned reflex • Elicited (drawn forth) response, involuntary, automatic • Trial o Presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli o How many it takes to form an association • Immune resistance • Sexual arousal • Drug tolerance • Acquisition: Forming new responses o Initial stage of learning something o Depends on stimulus contiguity o Odd, unusual or intense stimuli are more likely to become CSs • Extinction: Weakening Conditioned Responses o The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency o Consistent presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone may lead to extinction o Does not lead to unlearning • Spontaneous Recovery o Reappearing from the dead o Reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus o Will happen if in the original environment where the acquisition took place o Renewal effect • Stimulus Generalization o Responding to the exact CS but also to other similar stimuli o When an organism that had learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Fear of a bridge leads to a fear of all bridges. • Stimulus Discrimination o When an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to a new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus o Discriminate between the original CS o The less similar the more likely one is to discriminate • Higher Order Conditioning o A conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus o Built on the foundation of already established CR • Watson & Reiner o Little Albert experiment o Conditioned young boy to be scarred of anything white and furry by banging a metal sheet every time he tried to touch it o Start of behaviourism Operant Conditioning/ Instrumental • Operant Conditioning: a form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences • Started by B. F Skinner • Voluntary responses • Thorndike’s Law of Effect o Instrumental learning o Learning does not depend on thinking and understanding o If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened. • Reinforcement o An event following a response increases an organisms tendency to make that response. o Strengthens the response • Operant Chamber/ Skinner Box o Small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled. o Operant responses are voluntary so they are emitted rather than elicited • Reinforcement Contingencies o Circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers o Manipulation whether positive contingencies occur when the subject makes the designated response • Response Rate o The key dependent variable • Cumulative Recorder o Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a Skinner Box as a function of time o Graphic summary of subject’s response over time. o Slope  Rapid response produces steep slope  Slow response produces a shallow slope • Shaping o The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response o Necessary when the subject does not emit the response on its own • Extinction o The response tendency decreases because the response is no longer reinforced o Resistance to extinction  The organism continues a response after delivery of the reinforcer has ceased • Discriminative Stimuli o Cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences of a response o Learn when to or not to initiate the response • Primary Reinforcers o Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs o Ties to physiological needs o Food, water, sex, warmth, and affection • Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers o Events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers o Money, good grades, attention, flattery, praise, applause What they have in Common o Acquisition of the CR o Extinction of the UCS o Spontaneous recovery o Reconditioning o Generalization o Discrimination o Higher order conditioning o Response =Habit x Drive- Inhibition Schedules of Reinforcement • Schedule of reinforcement o Determines the occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of a reinforcer • Continuous Reinforcement o Occurs when every instance of a designated response is reinforced o Shape and establish a new response o Later move onto different schedules • Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement o Designated response is reinforced only some of the time o Leads to better long term effects o More resistant to extinction o Four types: fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval • Fixed Ratio (FR) o The reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses o 1/10 • Variable Ratio (VR) o Reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses o Predetermined average o 1/10 on the average o Sot machines • Fixed Interval (FI) o Reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed o After first time must wait 2 mins before it will be reinforced again • Variable Interval (VI) o The reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed o Time interval changes • Positive Reinforcement o A response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus o Good grades, pay cheques, scholarships o Being rewarded for doing well • Negative Reinforcement o A response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive( unpleasant) stimulus o Rewarded by getting rid of something bad o Avoidance behaviour • Escape Learning o An organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulations o Negative reinforcement • Avoidance Learning o An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring o Combination of classical and operant conditioning o Negative reinforcement • Punishment o An event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response o Involves presenting an aversive stimulus, or removing a rewarding one o Correlation between physical punishment and aggressiveness • How to make punishment more effective o Apply swiftly o Use punishment just severe enough to be effective o Make punishment consistent o Explain the punishment o Use noncorporal punishments Changing Directions in the Study of Conditioning • Instinctive Drift o When an animal’s innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes o Raccoons rubbing coins together • Conditioned Taste Aversion o Aversion to food that has been followed by sickness or nausea o By product of evolutionary history of animals • Preparedness o Species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others o What our ancestors feared, for survival • Ecologically relevant conditioned stimuli • Arbitrary, neutral stimuli • Signal Relations o Environmental stimuli serve as signals o Some stimuli are better than others and are more dependable as a signal o Predictive power of CS is an influential factor governing classical conditioning o • Response Outcome o Reinforcement is not automatic when favourable consequences follow a response o What the person thinks caused the outcome o Realize casual relationships between response and outcome o When a response produces a desirable outcome, the response is strengthened because `they think that response caused the outcome Observable Learning • Observational Learning o Driving for the first time o When an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models o Albert Bandura o not entirely separate from classical or operant o being conditioned indirectly by watching someone else o the reinforcement is not felt by you but the person you are observing • Four Key Processes  Attention  Retention  Reproduction  Motivation • Aggressive models may teach aggressive behaviour • Acquisition of a learned response • Performance of the response • Mirror Neurons o Activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action o Related to imitation, observable learning o Related to autism: facial expressions, emotional recognition, empathy and language • Behaviour Modification o Systematic approach to changing behaviour through the application of the principles of conditioning. o Behaviour is a product of learning, conditioning and environmental control o What is learned can be unlearned • Antecedents o Events that typically precede a target response • Behavioural Contract o A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behaviour modification program Applications of Learning Theory • Phobia o Irrational fear of something o Simple Phobia  Claustrophobia, heights, zoophobia  Real dangers o Social Phobias  Difficult to treat  Afraid of leaving the house • Non random phobic excitements o Snakes, heights, closed spaces o Took 1-2 trials to condition uni students to fear of snakes or spiders o Much longer for subjects conditioned to houses and flowers o What our ancestors feared for survival • Preparedness o Why our phobias develop around certain objects • Irrational fears o Everytime you avoid something you are rewarded Treatment • Symptom substitution o Symptom is what causes the fear o Cured of one fear will move on to another • Implosion Therapy o Visualize the fear, get subject to relax while they do so o Fear response = 0 o No actual exposure o Some people 14 sessions o Invirto- in office • Flooding o Invivo- in life o Face the fear • Systematic Desensitization o Gradual hierarchy  talk about fear  shown pictures  films  physically see fear  touch possibly • Aversion o Change what pleasures you with something unpleasant o Treating pedophiles • Assertiveness Training o C type personality, people with cancer o Don’t express negative emotions o Learn to show the feelings you have o Why not Assertiveness  people do not know what to say  how do you act assertive  anxious, fear of being rejected Reward Training • reward with something physical then move on to verbal rewards • Token Economy o System for doling out symbolic reinforcers that are exchanged later for a variety of genuine reinforcers o Learn things are not given freely o Lose and gain token • Multi-modal o Talk therapy, model behaviour o Observational Learning o Rehearsal  Shown an exemplary performance • Encouragement Process o Place value of individual o Express faith in individual o Recognize a job well done, reward o Focus on strengths and assets • Authoritative o Legit authority • Authoritarian o Artificial o Diminishes encouragement process • Punishment Training o Corporal punishment  Body is punished for a behaviour o More likely to be violent on others o Anti-social behaviour o Mainly inflicted on: children, minorities, boys, physically challenged Chapter 7  Memory involves o Encoding  Put in short term memory  Acoustic: words, speaking  Visual: see  Semantic: facts, concepts o Storage  What is important sorted into long term o Retrieval  Recall: must know it, short answer test  Recognition: see again, multiple choice  Different Types of Memory o Episodic  Brief specific events  I remember when… o Semantic  General information  I know that… o Procedural  Sequencive movement  How to do something  Recalling o Explicitu  Intentionally remember something  Writing a test o Implicit  Unintentionally remembering something  Spontaneous  Riding a bike  Models of Memory o Levels of Processing Model  How well info is encoded  Rehearsal, how involved in encoding process • Maintenance rehearsal: going over • Elaborative: associations, application o Information Processing Model  Sensory • Adaptive, effects the senses • Not very long, held for 1 sec • What is important moves on to short term  Short Term • Held for longer but if not worked through gone 20 secs • If important moves on to long term memory • Working memory  Long Term • May be infinite • Limitless capacity • Subject to distortion  Retrieval o Context Dependent Retrieval  Put self into the context of which you learned the material o State Dependent  Emotional state, or mood effects what you think of  Repressed memories  Constructive Memory o Makes sense but may not be true o Memory becomes distorted o Problems with eye witness testimony  Forgetting/ Repression o Decay  Gradual disappearance o Interference  Retroactive • Learning new effects the old • Short term long term  Proactive • Old interferes with new • Long term  short term Chapter 8 • Cognition o The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge • Language o The symbols that convey meaning plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages o 4 key properties  Language is symbolic • Represents objects, actions, events and ideas • Flexible, same word used for different things  Semantic • Meaningful • Arbitrary, no relationship between the look and sound of the word and the object  Generative • A limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate words • You make up sentences that have never been said before • Comprehend sentences never heard before  Structured • Sentences can be structured in a limited number of ways o Structure  Phonemes • The smallest speech unit in language that can be distinguished perceptually • Humans can only distinguish about 100 basic sounds • English has 40  Morphemes • The smallest unit of meaning in a language • 50, 000 in English • Includes roots, prefix, and suffix  Semantics • The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations • Denotation: dictionary • Connotation: emotions  Syntax • System of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences • A sentence must has a subject and a verb o Child progress  Learn the rules of syntax very fast  1-5 months: reflexive communication  6-18 months: babbling  10-13 months: first words  12-18 months: one word sentence  18-24: vocabulary spurt  2 years: 2 word sentence  2.5 years: three word sentence  3 years: complete simple active sentence structure  3.5: expanded grammatical forms  4: years: five word sentences  5 years: well developed and complex syntax  6 years: metalinguistic awarness  Fast Mapping • Process by which children map onto an underlying concept after only one exposure  Overt Extension • When a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to  Under Extensions • When a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than is meant to be  Telegraphic Speech • Content words; articles, prepositions, and less critical words are omitted • Give doll  MLU ( mean length of utterance) • The average length of youngsters’ spoken statements (measured in morphemes)  Over-regularizations • When grammatical riles are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply • Goed, hitted  Metalinguistic awareness • The ability to reflect on the use of language  Largest strides age 1-5  School age, begin to play with language, puns and jokes  6-8 irony o Learning 2 languages  Bilingualism • Acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary and grammatical rules  Acculturation • The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture  Age is very important, younger is better, best before age 7  Better u til age 15  Motivation and attitude also affect  Critical age is 13 • Theories of Language o Behaviourist  B.F Skinner  Verbal Behaviour (1957)  Children learn through imitation, reinforcement, and other ways of conditioning  Not reinforced, decline in frequency  Shaped until correct  Imitation and reinforcement for learning syntax o Nativist Theories  Noam Chomsky  Infinite # of sentences= impossible for it to be imitation  Children learn the rules  Inborn ability to learn language  LAD (Language Acquisition Device) • Innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language  Biologically equipped like how birds are able to fly  Comes at about the same pace for children o Interactionist Theories  Biology and experience  Cognitive • An important aspect of a more general cognitive development- maturation and experience  Social Communication • Functional of communication and the social context that it evolves in  Emergentist • Neural circuits are not pre-wired but emerge gradually in response to experience  Linguistic Relativity • The hypothesis that one’s language determines the nature of one’s thought • Problem Solving • Problem solving o Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable • Problems o Problems of inducing structure  Requires discovering the relationship among numbers words, symbols and ideas. o Problems of arrangement  Arrange the parts of a problem in a way that satisfies a criterion  Only one or few ways solve the problem  Insight • Burst of will usually lead to the correct solution o Problems of transformation  Carry out sequential transformations to reach a goal • Barriers to Problem Solving o Focus on irrelevant information  Leads people astray  People assume that all numerical information is important o Functional fixedness  The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use o Mental set  When people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past o Imposition of unnecessary Constraints  People come up with constraints that the problem doesn’t state • Approaches to a Problem Solving o Problem space  The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver o Trial and Errors  Trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works o Algorithm  Methodical step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem o Heuristic  Guiding principle or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions  Narrows the problem space Chapter 9 - 2% of the pop. Have an IQ of 130+; 60% have 90-110 IQ - Culture fair IQ test (not culture free) - IQ = 20% environment + 80% genetics - IQ  multi-factorial  Generally stable unless environment drastically changes - Flynn (!984) every generation gains 15-20 pts in IQ o To explain the recent declining/stable IQ stats of countries, Flynn states that the IQ abilities of the generations today have simply reached a plateau Categories of Psychological Testing • Psychological test o Standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behaviour • Mental Ability Test o Intelligence test  Measure general mental ability  Asses intellectual potential o Aptitude test  Asses specific types of mental abilities  Measure potential o Achievement tests  Measure mastery and knowledge or various subjects  What an individual can do now • Personality Test o Measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes o Personality scales o No right or wrong answers • Standardized test o The uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test o Everyone gets the same test no matter who they are or when they take it Psychometric Approach 1) Spearman o “g” = general (general ability for the brain to solve problems/analogies ex. mathematically)  The best way to get a “g” were analogies (analogy tests) o “s” = specific ability 2) Cattell o Fluid Intelligence you are capable of solving novel problems  F.I. plateaus around the age of 35  Can be related to adaptability  Ex. Repairing your neighbor’s toilet with a paper clip  Fixed a calculator without having experience to guide o Crystallized Intelligence information/knowledge gained through experience (difficult to apply to novel problems)  C.I. increases steadily as one gets older *Tacit knowledge taught through life’s experiences - correlates highly w/ prestige, salary, ranking - improves w/ work experience *Older ppl have difficulty holding their working memory. Younger ppl have no trouble holding & organizing material (fluid/expansive). Older ppl are lousy at multitasking. 3) Robert Sternberg (**in txtbk) o Those who a
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