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Psych 100 Exam Review

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Don Morgenson

• Many psychologists thought behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory were dehumanizing, failed to recognize unique qualities of human behaviour. • This led to humanism: a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth. • SEE TABLE 1.2 pp. 13 • Humanists take an optimistic view of human nature. o People are not pawns of their animal heritage or environmental circumstances. o Research on animals not relevant because of their differences to humans. • Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970). o Rogers: human behaviour governed primarily by each individuals sense of self or “self concept” which animals lack. o Both said that to fully understand people’s behaviour, psychologists must take into account the fundamental drive toward personal growth. Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession • Applied psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems. • Clinical psychology (first arm of psych to emerge): the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders. o Few psychologists involved in clinical work. • WWII – many academic psychologists were pressed into service as clinicians, decided to continue after the war. Psychology Returns to its Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and Physiology • Renewed interest in consciousness, now called cognition. • Cognition: the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. • Jean Piaget (1954) research on children’s cognitive development • Noam Chomsky (1957) research on the psychological underpinnings of language. • Herbert Simon and colleagues began groundbreaking research on problem solving. Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural Diversity • Most studies were done on middle-class white students because of cost and convenience. • Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to others as the standard for judging the worst of foreign ways. Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology
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