• Many psychologists thought behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory
were dehumanizing, failed to recognize unique qualities of human
• This led to humanism: a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the
unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their
potential for personal growth.
• SEE TABLE 1.2 pp. 13
• Humanists take an optimistic view of human nature.
o People are not pawns of their animal heritage or environmental
o Research on animals not relevant because of their differences to
• Carl Rogers (1902 – 1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970).
o Rogers: human behaviour governed primarily by each
individuals sense of self or “self concept” which animals lack.
o Both said that to fully understand people’s behaviour,
psychologists must take into account the fundamental drive
toward personal growth.
Psychology Comes of Age as a Profession
• Applied psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with
everyday, practical problems.
• Clinical psychology (first arm of psych to emerge): the branch of
psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of
psychological problems and disorders.
o Few psychologists involved in clinical work.
• WWII – many academic psychologists were pressed into service as
clinicians, decided to continue after the war.
Psychology Returns to its Roots: Renewed Interest in Cognition and
• Renewed interest in consciousness, now called cognition.
• Cognition: the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.
• Jean Piaget (1954) research on children’s cognitive development
• Noam Chomsky (1957) research on the psychological underpinnings of
• Herbert Simon and colleagues began groundbreaking research on
Psychology Broadens Its Horizons: Increased Interest in Cultural
• Most studies were done on middle-class white students because of cost
• Ethnocentrism: the tendency to view one’s own group as superior to
others as the standard for judging the worst of foreign ways.
Psychology Adapts: The Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology