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Mindi Foster

Khadijah PlummerPS101DFinal Notes20121125 1FosterPS101DFinal NotesPsychology discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physicalmental state and external environment Chapter 1What is Psychology Psychology vs Pseudoscience essentially a myth psychobabble unsupported popular opinionEmpirical Evidence observation experimentation measurement History of Psychology 1 PreModern Phrenologydetailed study of shapesize of cranium as indication of character and mental abilityNotion that brains impact on skull tells us about personality Considered pseudoscience due to lack of evidence 2 ModernStructuralismWundtExamines structure of ones experience analyzed using basic elements known as introspection analyze sensations images and feelings into basics Wundt trained people to selfexamine experiences and parse them Criticismsubjective methodFunctionalismJames Emphasis on causesconsequences of behaviour stream of consciousness thought flow Conscious function of experience is static ask how and why Flowvaries across timesituations learn how behaviourmental processes allow for adaptation Criticismno set methodologytheory PsychoanalysisFreud Dream analysis Slips of the tongue Examines effects of unconscious motives desires and conflicts on behaviour psychotherapy method Criticismtheories are not falsifiable cannot be disproved if not is always correct its not science1 Khadijah PlummerPS101DFinal Notes20121125 2 Eight Psychological Guidelines1 Ask questionsBe willing to wonder2 Define termsFrame question in clearconcrete terms to make it less general Key for designing a good experiment 3 Examine evidenceWho is the source 4 Analyze assumptions and biasesAssumptionsbeliefs taken for granted when not made explicit ability to judge an arguments merits can be impaired Biasresults from unfair consideration of evidence hidden until provoked5 Avoid emotional reasoning Feelings about controversial issues lead to biasPointcounterpoint must be weighed6 Do not oversimplify Does not usually epitomize ie I know someone who7 Consider other interpretations Generates multiple reasonable explanations before settlingcritical thinking8 Tolerate uncertaintyNo right or wrong answer in psychology No mathematical right or wrong evidence on both sidesOccams Razorprinciple of choosing solution that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions Theorists 1 Hippocrates 460377 BCEGreek physician Founder of modern medicine Inferred brain is ultimate source of pleasures joys laughter jests sorrows pains griefs tearsst 1 Century DStoic philosophers observed anger cam from explanations of events2 John Locke 16321704English Philosopher Argued mind works by associating ideas arising from experience3 Franz Joseph Gall 17581858Austrian physician Inspired phrenologists Argument that different brain areas accounted for specific character and personality traits eg stinginess religiosity and could be read from bumps on skull Phrenologists used in North Americaclassic pseudoscience Parentschildreading 2 Khadijah PlummerPS101DFinal Notes20121125 3 Schoolshiring teachers Young peoplechoosing a mate Businessesemployee loyaltyhonestyForerunners of selfimprovement programsseminars 4 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 Mark Baldwinfound modern psychology in Canada Established first psychological laboratory in Leipzig GermanyTrained in medicine and philosophy wrote on psychology physiology natural history ethics logic First to announce intention to make psychology a scienceVolunteers made 10 000 practice observations before participation in studies 5 William James 18421910 Argued searching for building blocks of experience was a waste of time 6 Sigmund Freud 18561939neurologistListened to patients reports of depression nervousness obsessive habits Concluded distress due to conflicts emotional trauma in childhood that were too threatening to be remembered consciously Unconscious Mind Contains unrevealed wishes passions guilty secrets unspeakable yearning conflicts between desire and duty Urges are usually sexual or aggressive in nature Makes themselves known in dreams slips of the tongue apparent accidents jokes The Major Psychological Perspectives 1 Biological Perspective How bodily events affect behaviour feelings thoughts Argues all behaviouralmental phenomena result from physical brain activity Electrical impulses shoot along intricate pathways of nervous system hormones signal speed of internal organs chemical substances flow across tiny gaps that separate brain cells from each otherExamination of how biology affects learning and performance perceptions of reality experience of emotion vulnerability to emotional disorder Study how mindbody interact in illness and health Investigate contributions of genesother biological factors in development of abilitiespersonality traits essentially cannot know ourselves without knowing bodies 3
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