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Pysch midterm review.docx

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Kathy Foxall

Pysch midterm review Nervous system: The function of a nervous system is to gather and process information, produce responses to stimuli and coordinate the workings of different cells The central nervous System: receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory information- information about tastes, sounds, smells, color, pressure on the skin, the state of internal organs and so forth  Consists of two parts o Spinal cord: a collection of neurons and supportive tissue running from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones o Brain: central hub Peripheral Nervous system: handles the central nervous systems input and output. It contains all portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord  Sensory Nerves o Carry messages from special receptors in the skin muscles and other external and internal sense.  Somatic (skeletal) nervous system o Consists of nerves that are connected to sensory receptors-cells that enable you to sense the world- and also to the skeletal muscles that permit voluntary action  Automatic nervous system o Regulates the functioning of blood vessels, glands, and internal (visceral) organs such as the bladder, stomach and heart. o (for ex sweaty palms, fast heart rate, in love)  Sympathetic nervous system o To adjust the body to changing circumstances. The sympathetic system acts like an acceleratory of a car, mobilizing the body for action and an output of energy Communication in the nervous system  Neurons: they are the brains communication specialist transmitting information to and from within the nervous system  Glia: cells that supports, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation and maintenance of neural connections, and modify neural functioning Structure of the Neuron  Dendrites: look like the branches of a tree; they act like antennae’s, receiving messages toward the cell body  Cell Body: the part of the neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it will fire  Axon: a neurons extending fiber that conducts impulse away from the cell body and transmits them to other neurons  Myelin sheath: a fatty insulation that may surround the axon of a neuron  Nerve: a bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites in the peripheral nervous system  Stem cell: immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type How Neurons communicate  Synapse: the site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs, it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft, and receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell  Action potential: a brief change in electrical voyage which produces an electric current or impulse  Neurotransmitter: a chemical substance that is released by transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron Plasticity: the brains ability to change and adapt in response to experience for example, by reorganizing or growing new neural connections Chemical Messengers Serotonin: affects neurons involved in sleep, appetite, sensory perception, temperature, Regulation, pain suppression and mood. (bodily effects) Dopamine: affects neurons involved in voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion, pleasure or reward and possibly response to novelty Acetylcholine: affects neurons involved in muscle action, cognitive functioning , memory and emotion Norepinephrine: affects neurons involved increased heart rate and the slowing of instental activity during stress GABA: is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate: is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain; it is released by about 90% of the brains neurons Endorphins: chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides Hormones: Chemical substances, secreted by organs called glands that affect the functioning of other organs 1. Melatonin: which is secreted by pineal gland deep within the brain, helps to regulate daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep, 2. Oxytocin: secreted by the pituitary gland. Enhances uterine contractions during childbirth and facilities the ejection of milk during nursing 3. Adrenal hormones: hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands and that are involved in emotion and stress 4. Sex hormones: hormones that regulate the development and function of reproductive organs and that stimulate the development of male/female sexual characteristics a. Testerone: masculinizing hormones produced mainly in the testes b. Estrogen: feminizing hormones that contributes to female puberty c. Progesterone: influence the course of the menstrual cycle Mapping the Brain  Electroencephalogram (EEG) : a brain wave recording of neural activity detected by electrodes. It is useful but not very precise  Transcranial: magnetic stimulation (TMS) : a method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a persons head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate circuits and is also being used therpeatcully  PET scan: a method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain using injections of a glucose like substance containing a radioactive sentiment  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): a method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic fields and special radio receivers: functional MRI is a faster form used in psychological research Brain Tour Brain Stem: The part of the brain at the top of the spinal cord, consisting of medulla and pons Pons: A structure in the brain stem involved, among other things, sleeping, walking and dreaming Medulla: A structure in the brain stem responsible for certain automatic functions, such as breathing and heart rate Reticular activating system: A dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem: it across the cortex and screens incoming information Cerebellum: A brain structure that regulates movement and balance and is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses (movement and balance is off) Thalamus: a brain structure that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex ( cant feel things properly) Hypothalamus: a brain structure involved in the emotions that are vital for survival, such as fear, hunger, thirst and reproduction (daredevil) Pituitary gland: a small endocrine gland at the base of the brain, which releases many hormones and regulates other endocrine glands (hormone deficiency) Amygdala: a brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory info (no emotion) Hippocampus: a brain structure involved in the storage of new information (forgets new things) The cerebrum Cerebrum: the largest brain structure, consisting of the upper part of the brain; divided into two hemispheres, it is in charge of most sensory, motor and cognitive processes Cerebral hemispheres: the two halves of the cerebrum Corpus callosum: the bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres Lateralization: specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular hemispheres Cerebral cortex: a collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum it is largely responsible for higher mental functions Lobes Occipital lobes: lobes at the lower back part of the brains cerebral cortex; they contain areas that receive visual info (visual) Parietal lobes: lobes at the top of the brains cerebral cortex; they contain areas that receive information on pressure, pain, touch and temperature (touch) Temporal lobes: lobes at the side of the brains cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in hearing memory, perception, emotion and language comprehension (cognitive skills) Frontal lobes: lobes at the front of the brains cerebral cortex; they contain areas involved in short term memory (memory) “His” and “her” brains 1. Many supposed gender differences (in intuition, abilities, and so forth) are stereotypes 2. A brain difference does not necessarily produce a difference in behavior or performance 3. Sex differences in the brain could be the result rather than the cause of behavioral differences CH 5 Body rhythms and mental states Biological Rhythms: tides of experience Consciousness: awareness of oneself and the environment Biological rhythm: a periodic more or less of regular fluctuation in a biological system: may or may not have psychological implications Entrainment: the synchronization of biological rhythms with external cues such as fluctuations in daylight Endogenous: generated from within (internal) rather than by external cues Circadian rhythm: a biological rhythm with a period (from a peak to peak) Suprachiasmatic nucleus: an area of the brain containing a biological clock that governs circadian rhythms Internal desynchronization: biological rhythms are not in sync. Often occurs when people take airplane flights across several time zones Seasonal affective disorder: vulnerable to environmental changes in amount of sunlight. People get depressed in certain seasons Rhythm of sleep Rapid eye movement: sleep periods characterized by eye movement, loss of muscle tone, and dreaming Stages of sleep Alpha waves: awake/relaxed 1. Feel on the edge of consciousness; light sleep 2. Presence of sleeps spindles (burst of activity); minor noises wont disturb you 3. Delta waves begin 4. Delta waves predominant; deep sleep; most likely stage for sleepwalking 5. REM sleep: increased eye movement, loss of muscle tone and dreaming Hypotheses about the function of sleep Hypotheses 1  Sleep evolved to conserve organism energy Hypothesis 2  Immobilization during sleep is adaptive Hypothesis 3  Sleep helps animals to restore Benefits of Sleep Memory consolidation: synaptic changes associated with recently stored memories becoming durable and stable, causing memory to become more reliable. Linked to REM and slow wave sleep Sleep Deprivation Consequences of sleeplessness A. Chronic sleep deprivation a. Increases cortisol levels which can impair neurons involved in learning and memory B. Chronic insomnia a. Difficulty falling or staying asleep C. Complete deprivation a. 3 or 4 days max. without sleep D. Partial deprivation or sleep restriction a. Impaired attention, reaction time, coordination and decisions making E. Selective deprivation a. Rem and slow wave sleep Sleep Disorders 1. Sleep apnea: disorder in which breathing stops during sleep 2. Narcolepsy: disorder involving sudden and unpredictable daytime attacks of sleepiness or lapses into REM, sleep muscle paralysis associated with REM sleep does not occur Dreams Lucid dreams: dream in which the dreamer is aware that they are dreaming What do we dream? 1. Walking life spillover 2. Common themes 3. Negative emotional content 4. Failure dreams 5. Sexual dreams Four Approaches to dreaming Dreams provide insight into unconscious wishes and desires  Manifest content: the aspects of a dream that we consciously experience during sleep and may remember upon waking  Latent content : the unconscious wishes and thoughts being expressed symbolically  Sigmund Freud Dreams as efforts to deal with problems  Dreams reflect the ongoing unconscious preoccupations of waking life, such as concerns over relationships, work, sex and health  Problem focused approach: the symbols and metaphors in a dream do not disguise its true meaning they convey it  What a person is concerned of will be displayed within their dream  Cartwright Dreams as thinking  The cognitive approach to dreaming emphasizes current concerns but it makes no claims about problem solving during sleep  The brain is doing the same kind of work during dreams that it does when we are awake  Out outer sensory is closed so out input is from our brain. So we remember things from our brains memory Dreams as interpreted brain activity  Activation –synthesis theory: draws heavily on physiological research  It is the story that dreaming results from the critical synthesis and interpretation of neural signals triggered by activity in the lower part of the brain  No dreams Hypnosis Hypnosis: is a procedure in which a practitioner suggests changes in the sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings, or behavior of the participant Nature of hypnosis 1. Hypnotic responsiveness depends more on the efforts and qualities of the person being hypnotized than on the skill of the hypnotist 2. Hypnotized people cannot be forced to do things against their will 3. Feats performed while under hypnosis can be performed by motivated people without hypnosis 4. Hypnosis does not increase the accuracy of memory 5. Hypnosis does not produce a literal re experiencing of long ago events 6. Hypnotic suggestions have been used effectively for many medical and psychological purposes Theories of hypnosis Disassociation theories  Involves dissoassoaction or a split in consciousness in which one part of mind operates independently from the rest Sociocognitive theory of hypnosis  Social influence of the hypnotist  The abilities, beliefs and expectations of the subject  The hypnotized person plays a role and submits to hypnotist Classifying Drugs 1. Stimulants a. Drugs that speed activity in the CNS (central nervous System) 2. Depressants a. Drugs that slow activity in the CNS 3. Opiates a. Drugs derived from opium poopy that remove pain and commonly produce euphoria 4. Psychedelic drugs a. Drugs that produce hallucinations, change thought processes, or disrupt the normal perception of time and space 5. Anabolic steroids: synthetic derivatives of testosterone that are taken by pill or injected Physiology of Drug Effects Tolerance: increased resistance to a drugs effects accompanying continued use Withdrawal: physical and psychological symptoms that occur when someone addicted to a drug stops Popular Drugs Alcohol  Affects memory: information stored before drinking is preserved but recalled more slowly.  Alcohol is the most widely used psychoactive drug MDMA  A compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinogens- it became
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