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Exam review.docx

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Eileen Wood

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Quiz 1 review: Empirical: Relying on or derived from observations, experimentation, or measurement, Psychology: The Discipline concerned with behaviors and mental processes and how they are affected by an organisms physical state, mental state, and external environment. The term is often represented by the Greek letter psi. Psychobabble: Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language. (IE. Astrology, past- lives channeler, Psychic) Occam’s Razor: The principle of choosing the solution that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions. Hippocrates: (460 bc – 377 bc) Believed the brain is the ultimate source of our joys, sorrows, pains, laughter, etc. John Locke: Believed the mind worked by associating idea’s from experience. Phrenology: The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be “read” from bumps on the skull. First Psychological laboratory: Established in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany by Wilhelm Wundt. Willhelm Wundt: (1832 - 1920) Trained in medicine and philosophy and wrote many volumes on psychology, physiology, natural history, ethics, and finally logic. He was the first person to announce that psychology was a science. His laboratory was the first to publish its findings in a scientific journal. He created structuralism. Structuralism: An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. Functionalism: An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behaviors and conscious. One of functionalism’s founders was William James. Structuralisms asks what happens when an organism does something, functionalists ask how and why. Psychoanalysis: A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, which emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. Mind Cure Movement: Mind cures were efforts to correct the “false ideas” that were said to make people anxious, depressed, and unhappy. This movement led to modern cognitive therapies. Sigmund Freund: (1856-1939) argued that conscious awareness is merely the tip of the mental iceberg. Beneath the “visible tip”, he said, lies the unconscious part of the mind, contained unrevealed wishes, passions, guilty secrets, unspeakable yearnings, and conflicts between desire and duty. He believes many of these thoughts are sexual or violent in general. He believes we may not be aware of them, but our desires make themselves known through jokes, apparent accident, dreams, etc. Evolutionary Psychology: A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior. Behaviorism: An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior. The Major Psychological Perspectives: The Biological perspective: A psychological approach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. The Learning perspective: A psychological approach that emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a persons or animals action, it includes behaviorism and social cognitive learning theories. The Cognitive perspective: A psychological approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. The Sociocultural perspective: A psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior. The Psychodynamic perspective: A psychological approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy. Humanist psychology: A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievements of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior. Feminist psychology: an approach that analyzes the influence of social inequalities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes. Psychological practice: Providing health or mental health services. Psychotherapist: Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy. Psychoanalyst: A person who practices psychoanalysis, and who has obtained specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personally. Psychiatrist: A medical doctor who has completed a three year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians. Basic Research: Involves seeking new knowledge, exploring, and advancing general scientific understanding. Applied Research: Is conducted specifically for the purpose of solving practical problems and improving people’s quality of life. Theory: An organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations. Hypothesis: A statement that attempts to predict or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or variables and are empirically tested. Operational definition: A precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined. Principle of falsifiability: The principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen but also what will not happen. Confirmation Bias: The tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms one’s owns belief. Representative Sample: A group of individuals, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex. Descriptive Methods: Methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual explanations. Case Study: A detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated. Observational Studies: A study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behaviors without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation. Naturalistic Observation: The primary purpose of naturalistic observation is to find out how people or animals act in their normal social environments. Psychological tests: Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. Standardize: In test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test. Norms: In test construction, establish standards of performance. Reliability: In test construction, the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another. Validity: The ability of a test to measure what is was designed to measure. Surveys: Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions. Volunteer Bias: A shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of their representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer. Correlational Study: A descriptive study that looks for a consistent relation between two phenomena. Correlation: A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another. Variables: Characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by numeric scale. Positive Correlation: An association between increases in one variable increases in another – or between decreases in one and in another. Negative Correlation: An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another. Coefficient of correlation: A measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00. Experiment: A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another. Independent Variable: A variable that an experimenter manipulates. Dependent Variable: A variable that an experimenter predicts will be affected by manipulations of the independent variable. Control Condition: In an experiment, a comparison condition in which participants are not exposed to the same treatment as in the experimental condition. Random Assignment: A procedure for assigning people to experimental and control groups in which each individual has the same probability as any other of being assigned to a given group. Placebo: An inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control in an experiment or given by a medical practitioner to a patient. Single-Blind Study: An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in an experimental or a control group. Experimenter Effects: Unintended changes in study participants’ behavior due to cues inadvertently given by the experimenter. Double-Blind Study: An experiment in which neither the people being studied nor the individual running the study know who is in the control group and who is in the experimental group until after results are tallied. Field Research: Descriptive or experimental research conducted in a natural setting outside the laboratory. Research Methods: Method: Advantages: Disadvantages: Case Study Good Source of Vital info may be Hypothesis missing In-depth info on Person’s memories individuals may be selective or Some cases can inaccurate. discover situations or Individual may not be problems that are representative. impractical Naturalistic Good descriptions for Researchers have behavior in the little control natural environment Observations may be Useful in the first biased stages of research Does not allow firm conclusions. Laboratory Allows more control Limited control over then naturalistic situation Allows the use of Observations may be sophisticated biased equipment Does not allow firm conclusions about cause and effect Behavior may differ from the natural environment Test Yields info on Difficult to construct personality traits, test that are reliable emotional states, and valid aptitudes, and abilities Survey Provides a large If sample is non amount of information representative or on large amounts of biased, it is people. impossible to generalize on results Responses could be lies Correlational Study Shows whether two or Usually does not more variables are permit identification of related cause and effect Allows general predictions Experiment Allows researchers to Situation is artificial control the situation. Results may not Permits researchers to generalize well with identify cause and the real world effect Sometimes difficult to Allows researchers to avoid experimenter distinguish between effects placebo and treatment effects. Cross Cultural Research: Methods and Sampling: Researchers must worry, and understand different languages and cultures. One effect could be cultural, and there could be many miss understandings. Stereotyping: When describing differences across societies, because they could be so different, researchers are generally tempted to oversimplify, and create a stereotype. Reification: Cultural psychologists must work to identify not only the average differences in traits and behavior’s, but they also must identify the reasons those behaviors are caused. Descriptive Statistics: Statistical procedures that organize and summarize research data. Arithmetic Mean: An average that is calculated by adding up a set of quantities and dividing the sum by the total number of quantities in the set. Standard Deviation: A commonly used measure of variability that indicates the average difference between scores in a distribution and their mean. Inferential Statistics: Statistical procedures that allow researchers to draw inferences about how statistically meaningful a study’s results are. Significance Tests: Statistical tests that show how likely it is that a study’s results occurred merely by chance. Cross-Sectional: A study in which people (or animals) of different ages are compared at a given time. Longitudinal study: A study in which people (or animals) are followed and periodically recessed over a period of time. Effect size: The amount of variance among scores in a study accounted for by the independent variable. Meta-analysis: A procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies; it determines how much of the variance in scores across all studies can be explained by a particular variable. Informed Consent: The doctrine that anyone who participates in human research must do so voluntarily and must know enough about the study to make an intelligent decision about whether to take part. N = Total number of observations or scores in a set. X = an observation or score. Σ = The sum of. √ = The square root of. Frequency Distribution: Shows how often each possible score actually occurred. To construct one, you first order all the possible scores from highest to lowest. Then you tally how often each score was actually obtained. E.X: You make a group of people watch a film degrading aboriginals with mutilation, at the same time, you make them make jokes and calculate their mood disturbance score. 7 for “high”, and 1 for “not at all” Mood Disturbance Score 8 7 6 5 4 Mood Disturbance Score 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 This Chart is an example of a Histogram/bar graph. Line Graph: Descriptive Statistics: Measure of Central Tendency: Measures of central tendency characterize an entire set of data in terms of a single representative number. The Mean: The most popular measure of central tendency is the arithmetic mean, usually called simply the mean. It is often expressed by the symbol M. To compute the mean, you simply add up a set of scores and divide the total by the number of scores in a set. M = ΣX/N The Median: Despite the mean’s usefulness, is can be misleading. One extreme high number could dramatically change the mean. When extreme scores occur, a more representative measure of central tendency is the Median, or midpoint in a set of scores or observations ordered from highest to lowest. E.X: 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, [4], 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6 The Mode: A third measure of central tendency is the mode, the score that occurs most often. In the example before, it would be 4. Measure of Variability: A measure of central tendency may or may not be highly representative of other scores in a distribution. To understand our results, we also need a measure of variability that will tell us whether our scores are clustered closely around the mean or widely scattered. The Range: The simplest measure of variability is the range, which is found by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score. For our hypothetical set of mood disturbance scores, the range in the experimental group is 4 and in the control group, it is 3. Unfortunately, simplicity is not always a virtue. The range gives us some information about variability but ignores all scores other than the highest and lowest. The Standard Deviation: A more sophisticated measure of variability is the standard deviation. This statistic takes every score in the distribution into account. It is complicated to explain so here is the formula and page number(pg.664, A-4 Appendix): SD = √(Σ(X-M) 2/N) Transforming Scores: Percentile Scores: One common transformation converts each raw score to a percentile score(also called centile rank). A percentile score gives the percentage of people who scored at or below a given raw score. Z-Scores: tells you how far a given raw score is above or below the mean, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement. z = X-M/SD Subtract the mean of the distribution from the raw score and divide by standard deviation. Curves: Normal Distribution: A perfect normal distribution is theoretical construct and is not actually found in nature. Plotted in a frequency polygon, a normal distribution has a symmetrical, bell-shaped form known as a normal curve. Normal Curve: The right side if the exact mirror image of the left. The mean, medium, and mode have the same values and are at the exact center of the curve, at the top of the bell. Null Hypothesis: In an experiment, the scientist must assess the possibility that his or her experimental manipulation will have no effect on the subjects behavior. The statement expressing this possibility is called the null hypothesis. Alternative Hypothesis: In contrast states that on average, the experimental group will have lower mood disturbance scores than the control group. Statistically Significant: That is only chance were operating, our result would be highly improbable, so we are fairly safe in concluding that more than chance was operating, namely, the influence of our independent variable Chapter 4: Central Nervous System: The portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. It receives processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory information. Information about tastes, sounds, smells, colour, pressure on the skin, the state of internal organs, etc. It also sends out messages to muscles, glands, and internal organs. Spinal Cord: A collection of neurons and supportive tissue running down from the base of the brain down the center of the back, protected by a column of bones. The spinal cord also produces its own processes. These are known as spinal reflexes. These reflexes are automatic, for example touching something hot will make your hand pull back immediately without your brain knowing. Peripheral Nervous System: All portions of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord; it includes sensory and motor nerves. Without the peripheral nervous system, the brain would not know what was going on. Imagine a radio without a receiver. Somatic Nervous System: The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles; sometimes called the skeletal nervous system. It is nerves that are connected to sensory receptors. When you feel a bug on your arm, when you turn off a light or even write your name, your somatic system is active. Autonomic Nervous System: The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal organs and glands. This system is divided into two parts: The sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic. These two parts work together, but in opposing ways, to adjust the body to changing circumstances. The sympathetic system acts like an accelerator of a car, mobilizing the body for action and output of energy. It makes you blush, sweat, breathe more deeply, and if pushes up your heart rate and blood pressure. The parasympathetic system is like a break. It slows things down and keep them running smoothly. It enables the body to store energy. If you are about to get hit by something, your sympathetic system will give you the energy to get out of the way, and then the parasympathetic system will slow your heart rate to normal again. Neurons: A cell that conducts electrochemical signals; the basic unit of the nervous system; also called a nerve cell. Glia: Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance the formation of neural connections, and modify neural functioning. Types of Neruons: Three Types: Afferent neurons (sensory): Relay information from the senses to the brain and spinal cord. Efferent neurons (motor): Send information from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles, enabling the body to move. Interneurons: Carry information between neurons in the Central Nervous System. Anatomy of a Neuron: Parts: - Cell Body: The metabolic center of the neuron endowed by the semipermeable cell membrane - Dendrites: The branches extending from the cell body, which receive most of the signals from other neurons. - Axons: The slender extension that projects from the cell body and transmits signals to other neurons. - Myelin Sheath: The fats coating on some axons that acts as insolent. Nerve: A bundle of nerve fibers (axons and sometimes dendrites) in the peripheral nervous system. Neurogenesis: The production of new neurons from immature stem cells. Stem Cells: Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type. Synapse: The site where transmission of a nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; it includes the axon terminal, the synaptic cleft, and the receptor sites in the membrane of the receiving cell. Action Potential: A brief change in electrical voltage that occurs between the inside and the outside of an axon when a neuron is stimulated, it serves to produce an electrical impulse. Neurotransmitter: A chemical substance that is released by a transmitting neuron at the synapse and that alters the activity of a receiving neuron. Plasticity: The brain’s ability to change and adapt in response to experience – for example, by recognizing or growing new neural connections. Endorphins: Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory and are known technically as endogenous opioid peptides. Hormones: Chemical substances, secreted by organs called glands, that affect the functioning of other organs. Endocrine Glands: Internal organs that produce hormones and release them into the blood stream. Melatonin: A hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, that is involved in the regulation of daily biological rhythms. Oxytocin: A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, facilitates the ejection of milk during nursing, and seems to promote, in both sexes, attachment and trust in relationships. Adrenal Hormones: Hormones that are produced by the adrenal glands and that are involved in emotion and stress. Sex Hormones: Hormones that regulate the developments and functioning of reproductive organs and that stimulated the developments of male and female sexual characteristics; they include androgens, estrogens, and progesterone. Electroencephalogram: A recording of neural activity detected by electrodes. Trans-cranial Magnetic Stimulation: A method of stimulating brain cells, using a powerful magnetic field produced by a wire coil placed on a person’s head; it can be used by researchers to temporarily inactivate neural circuits and is also being used therapeutically. PET Scan(positive-emission tomography): A method for analyzing biochemical activity in the brain, using injections for a glucose-like substance containing a radioactive element. MRI(Magnetic Resonance Imaging): A method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic field and special radio receivers; functional MRI(fMRI) is a faster form often used in psychological research. Localization of Function: Specialization of particular brain areas for particular functions. Parts of the Brain: Brain Stem: The part of the brain at the top of the spinal cord, consisting of the medulla and the pons. Pons: A structure in the brain stem involved in, among other things, sleeping, walking, and dreaming. Medulla: A structure in the brain stem responsible for certain automatic functions, such as breathing and heart rate. Reticular Activating System(RAS): A dense network of neurons found in the core of the brain stem; it arouses the cortex and screen incoming information. Cerebellum: A brain structure that regulates movement and balance and is involved in the learning of certain kinds of simple responses. Thalamus: A brain structure that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus: A brain structure involved in emotions and drives th
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