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PS101 Exam Notes.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Chapter One The Birth of Modern Psychology  In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) established the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.  Wundt was trained in medicine and philosophy  In 1873 announced that he intended to make psychology a science  Mark Baldwin helped found “modern” psychology in Canada Three Early Psychologies -Structuralism An early psychological approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements  StructuralismWundt. E.B. Titchener (1867-1927), gave Wundt‟s approach the name structuralism.  Ask what happened  Similar to Wundt‟s hopes- structuralists hoped to analyze sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements  Introspection often lead to conflicting reports -Functionalism An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness  William James (1842-1910) an American philosopher physician and psychologist believed that searching for the root of experience (as Wundt and Tichener did) was a waste of time.  Functionalists ask why and how  Inspired by Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  How something helps you to adapt to the environment  “Stream of consciousness” -Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) ,that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.  “Mind cures” were efforts to correct the “false ideas” that were said to make people anxious, depressed and unhappy (Caplan, 1998; Moskowitz 2001)  Events that occurred in early childhood were distressing individuals in adulthood (too painful to fully remember) QUIZ: -Psychology has been a science for more than 135 years -The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on causal observation -Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to Wilhem Wundt -Early psychologist who emphasized how behavior helps an organism adapt to its environment were known as functionalists -The idea that emotional problems spring from unconscious conflicts originated with psychoanalysis The Major Psychological Perspectives 1) The Biological Perspective Emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings and thoughts. -Studies the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, hereidity -McGill University Donald O. Hebb- argued that all behavior and mental phenomena arise as the result of physical activity within the brain. -Researchers study how biology affects learning and performance, perceptions of reality, the experience of emotion and vulnerability to emotional disorder. Evolutionary Psychology: a field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices and other areas of behavior. 2) The Learning Perspective Emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person or animal‟s actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories. -Studies the environment and experience/ environmental determinants of observable behavior/environmental influences, observation and imitation, beliefs and values. -Behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that maintain or discourage specific behaviors. -Behaviorism Emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as a determinant of behavior. Dominant school of scientific psychology in North America (until early 1960‟s) -Social-cognitive learning theoristscombine elements of behaviorism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. 3) The Cognitive Perspective Emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior. -Cognitive Latin for “to know” -1970‟s -To show how peoples thoughts and explanations affect their actions, feelings and choices. -One of the strongest forces in psychology 4) The Sociocultural Perspective Emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior -Studies social and cultural contexts/social rules and roles, groups, relationships/ cultural norms, values, expectations -Social psychologists focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority and how each of us is affected by other people (spouses/lovers/friends/family) -Cultural psychologists examine how culture rules and values- both explicit and unspoken- affect people‟s development, behavior and feelings. 5) The Psychodynamic Perspective Emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts or movement of instinctual energy -Studies unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts -Origins at Freud‟s theory of psychoanalysis -Psychodynamic psychologists try to dig below the surface of a person‟s behavior to get to its unconscious roots; they think of themselves as archeologists of the mind. Other Influential Movements in Psychology -Humanist Psychology Emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior Carl RogersHumanism -In the 1960s humanist psychology rejected the two dominant psychological approaches of the time: psychoanalysis and behaviorism. -In the humanist’s view, human behavior is not completely determined by either unconscious conflicts or the environment, people are capable of free will and therefore have the ability to make more of themselves than either psychoanalysts or behaviorists would predict -GOAL: to help people express themselves creatively and achieve their full potential -Seen as somewhat of a philosophy of life rather than approach to psychology -Feminist Psychology Analyzes the influences of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes (1970‟s) -(Bem 1993; Crawford&Marecek 1989; Hare-Mustin&Marecek 1990) -Many studies used young, white, and middle-class men -Discussed menstruation, motherhood, femininity gender roles and sexist attitudes -Critically examined the male bias in psychotherapy, stating with Freud‟s own case studies (Hare-Mustin,1991) -Since the 1970‟s African American, Latino, and Asian psychologists gay and lesbian psychologists and psychologists with disabilities have expanded the theoretical and empirical vistas of psychology. QUIZ: 1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted waysCognitive 2) Anxiety s due to forbidden, unconscious desiresPsychodynamic 3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being excused from examsLearning 4) Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical imbalanceBiological 5) A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety about failureSociocultural Review -Academic/research psychologists specialize in areas of pure or applied research, such as: Human development Psychometrics (testing) Health Education Physiological Psychology -Clinical PsychologistsDo psychotherapy and sometimes research; may work in any of these settings: Private practice Mental-health clinics General hospitals Mental hospitals Research laboratories -Psychologists in Industry, Law or Other SettingsDo research or serve as consultants to institutions on, for example: Sports Consumer issues Advertising Organizational problems Public policy Legal issues Opinion polls Psychological Research -Psychological PracticeProviding health or mental health services -Basic PsychologyThe study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own fake rather than for its practical application -Applied PsychologyThe study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also the application of psychological findings. -Experimental Psychologist Conduct lab studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition. -Educational Psychologist Study psychological principles that explain learning and search for ways to improve education systems. Their interests range from the application of findings on memory and thinking to the use of rewards to encourage achievement. -Developmental Psychologist Study how people change and grow over time- physically, mentally, and socially. In the past, their focus was mainly on childhood but many now study adolescence, young adulthood, the middle years, or old age. -Industrial/Organizational Psychologist Study behavior in the workplace. Concerned with group decision-making, employee morale, motivation, productivity, job stress, marketing strategies etc. -Psychometric Psychologist Design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality. Nearly all of us have had firsthand experience with one or more of these tests in school/work. Psychological Practice -Psychological Practitioners goal is to understand and improve peoples physical and mental health- work in mental hospitals, clinics, schools, counseling centers, and private practice. -Psychotherapist Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy term is not legally regulated -PsychoanalystPractices psychoanalysis, and who has obtained specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personallyIn order to obtain this title must have undergone psychoanalysis yourself, requires MD or a PhD. -Psychiatrist A medical doctor (MD) who has completed a three year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians. -Licensed clinical social worker (LCSW); marriage, family, and child counselor (MFCC) treats common individual and family problem, but may also deal with more serious problems such as addiction or abuse. Licensing requirements vary, but generally has at least and MA in psychology or social work. Regulation of Psychological Research, Training, and Practice in Canada -In 1939 the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was found help advance psychological research, promote and regulate psychological education, and support the practice of psychology in Canada. -Promotes by publishing in journals and sponsoring conferences to promote the exchange of scientific information. QUIZ: 1) Psychotherapist may have any credential, or none. 2) Psychiatrist Has an MD; tends to take a medical approach to mental-health problems 3) Clinical PsychologistHas a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, and does research on, or psychotherapy for, mental health problems 4) Research psychologistHas an advanced degree (usually PhD) and does applied or basic research 5) PsychoanalystIs trained in a therapeutic approach started by Freud Psychology in the Community -American Psychological Association (APA) has 53 divisions, psychology‟s largest organization. -Psychologists meet with companies to improve worker satisfaction and productivity. Chapter Two What Makes Psychological Research Scientific 1) Precision 2) Skepticism 3) Reliance on empirical evidence 4) Willingness to make “risky predictions” 5) Openness -Theory an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations -Hypothesis Statement that attempts to predicts or to account for a set of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or variables and are empirically tested -Operational Definition a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis, which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon being defined -Confirmation BiasThe tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that confirms ones own belief. The Principle of Falsifiability -Principle of Falsifiability the principle that a scientific theory must make predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will happen but also what will not happen. HYPOTHESISFALSIFIABLE(“RISKY”) PREDICTIONPOSSIBLE OUCOMECONCLUSION Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts -Representative Sample a group of individuals, selected from a population for study, which matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex. -Descriptive Methods methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual explanations -Case Study a detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated Observational Studies -Observational Studies a study in which the researcher carefully and systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation -Usually involves many participants -Often first step in a program of research -Naturalistic Observation to observe humans/animals in their natural social environmentsplaygrounds, home, classroom -Laboratory Observation researchers have more control of the situation Psychological Tests -Psychological Tests (assessment instruments) Procedures used to measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, and values. -Tests typically require people to answer questions orally or written -Objective Tests/ Inventories measure beliefs, feelings, or behaviors, which an individual is aware -Projective Tests are designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives -StandardizeIn test construction, to develop uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test. -Scoring for standardized testing is usually done by referring to Norms Established standards of performance -Reliability the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time and place to another -Validity the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure Surveys -Surveys questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes or opinions. -National surveys conducted by Ipsos, Harris/Decima or Statistics Canada -Volunteer Bias a shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ from those who did not volunteer QUIZ: 1) Ways in which the games of boys differ from those of girlsNaturalistic Observation 2) Changes in attitudes toward nuclear disarmament after a television movie about nuclear holocaustSurvey 3) The math skills of children in Canada versus JapanTest 4) Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent moviesLaboratory Observation 5)The development of a male infant who was reared as a female after his penis was accidentally burned off during a routine surgeryCase Study Correlational Studies: Looking for Relations -Correlational Study a descriptive study that looks for a consistent relation between two phenomena -Psychologists would use this to know whether two or more phenomena‟s are related, if so, how strongly. (Ex: grades related to numbers of hours spent watching television) Measuring Correlations -Correlation (relation) A measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another -VariablesCharacteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale -Positive CorrelationAn association between increases in one variable and increases in another- or between decreases in one and in another. -Negative CorrelationAn association between increases in one variable and decreases in another -If no relation exists between two variables, we say that they are uncorrelated or that there is zero correlation -Coefficient of CorrelationA measure of correlation that ranges in value from -1.00 to +1.00 Cautions about Correlations -Illusory Correlations apparent associations between two things that are not really related QUIZ: -Identify each of the following as positive or negative correlation 1) The higher a male monkey‟s level of the hormone testosterone, the more aggressive he is likely to bePositive 2) The older people are, the less frequently they tend to have sexual intercourseNegative 3) The hotter the weather, the more crimes again persons (such as muggings) tend to occurPositive Experimental Variables -Experimenta controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another -Independent Variable a variable that an experimenter
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