The Birth of Modern Psychology
In 1879, Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) established the first
psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
Wundt was trained in medicine and philosophy
In 1873 announced that he intended to make psychology a
Mark Baldwin helped found “modern” psychology in Canada
Three Early Psychologies
-Structuralism An early psychological approach that emphasized the
analysis of immediate experience into basic elements
StructuralismWundt. E.B. Titchener (1867-1927), gave Wundt‟s
approach the name structuralism.
Ask what happened
Similar to Wundt‟s hopes- structuralists hoped to analyze sensations,
images, and feelings into basic elements
Introspection often lead to conflicting reports
-Functionalism An early psychological approach that emphasized the
function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
William James (1842-1910) an American philosopher physician and
psychologist believed that searching for the root of experience
(as Wundt and Tichener did) was a waste of time.
Functionalists ask why and how
Inspired by Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
How something helps you to adapt to the environment
“Stream of consciousness”
-Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of
psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) ,that
emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts.
“Mind cures” were efforts to correct the “false ideas” that were
said to make people anxious, depressed and unhappy (Caplan,
1998; Moskowitz 2001)
Events that occurred in early childhood were distressing individuals
in adulthood (too painful to fully remember)
-Psychology has been a science for more than 135 years
-The forerunners of modern psychology depended heavily on causal
-Credit for founding modern psychology is generally given to Wilhem
Wundt -Early psychologist who emphasized how behavior helps an organism
adapt to its environment were known as functionalists
-The idea that emotional problems spring from unconscious conflicts
originated with psychoanalysis
The Major Psychological Perspectives
1) The Biological Perspective Emphasizes bodily events and changes
associated with actions, feelings and thoughts.
-Studies the nervous system, hormones, brain chemistry, hereidity
-McGill University Donald O. Hebb- argued that all behavior and mental
phenomena arise as the result of physical activity within the brain.
-Researchers study how biology affects learning and performance,
perceptions of reality, the experience of emotion and vulnerability to
Evolutionary Psychology: a field of psychology emphasizing
evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in
cognition, development, emotion, social practices and other areas of
2) The Learning Perspective Emphasizes how the environment and
experience affect a person or animal‟s actions; it includes
behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories.
-Studies the environment and experience/ environmental determinants of
observable behavior/environmental influences, observation and imitation,
beliefs and values.
-Behaviorists focus on the environmental rewards and punishers that
maintain or discourage specific behaviors.
-Behaviorism Emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role
of the environment as a determinant of behavior. Dominant school of
scientific psychology in North America (until early 1960‟s)
-Social-cognitive learning theoristscombine elements of behaviorism
with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions.
3) The Cognitive Perspective Emphasizes mental processes in
perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas
-Cognitive Latin for “to know”
-To show how peoples thoughts and explanations affect their actions,
feelings and choices.
-One of the strongest forces in psychology
4) The Sociocultural Perspective Emphasizes social and cultural
influences on behavior
-Studies social and cultural contexts/social rules and roles, groups,
relationships/ cultural norms, values, expectations -Social psychologists focus on social rules and roles, how groups affect
attitudes and behavior, why people obey authority and how each of us is
affected by other people (spouses/lovers/friends/family)
-Cultural psychologists examine how culture rules and values- both explicit
and unspoken- affect people‟s development, behavior and feelings.
5) The Psychodynamic Perspective Emphasizes unconscious
dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts or
movement of instinctual energy
-Studies unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts
-Origins at Freud‟s theory of psychoanalysis
-Psychodynamic psychologists try to dig below the surface of a person‟s
behavior to get to its unconscious roots; they think of themselves as
archeologists of the mind.
Other Influential Movements in Psychology
-Humanist Psychology Emphasizes personal growth and the
achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding
and assessment of behavior Carl RogersHumanism
-In the 1960s humanist psychology rejected the two dominant
psychological approaches of the time: psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
-In the humanist’s view, human behavior is not completely determined by
either unconscious conflicts or the environment, people are capable of
free will and therefore have the ability to make more of themselves than
either psychoanalysts or behaviorists would predict
-GOAL: to help people express themselves creatively and achieve their
-Seen as somewhat of a philosophy of life rather than approach to
-Feminist Psychology Analyzes the influences of social inequities on
gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes (1970‟s)
-(Bem 1993; Crawford&Marecek 1989; Hare-Mustin&Marecek 1990)
-Many studies used young, white, and middle-class men
-Discussed menstruation, motherhood, femininity gender roles and sexist
-Critically examined the male bias in psychotherapy, stating with Freud‟s
own case studies (Hare-Mustin,1991)
-Since the 1970‟s African American, Latino, and Asian psychologists gay
and lesbian psychologists and psychologists with disabilities have
expanded the theoretical and empirical vistas of psychology.
1) Anxious people often think about the future in distorted
2) Anxiety s due to forbidden, unconscious desiresPsychodynamic 3) Anxiety symptoms often bring hidden rewards, such as being
excused from examsLearning
4) Excessive anxiety can be caused by a chemical
5) A national emphasis on competition and success promotes anxiety
-Academic/research psychologists specialize in areas of pure or applied
research, such as:
-Clinical PsychologistsDo psychotherapy and sometimes research; may
work in any of these settings:
-Psychologists in Industry, Law or Other SettingsDo research or serve as
consultants to institutions on, for example:
-Psychological PracticeProviding health or mental health services
-Basic PsychologyThe study of psychological issues in order to seek
knowledge for its own fake rather than for its practical application
-Applied PsychologyThe study of psychological issues that have direct
practical significance; also the application of psychological findings.
-Experimental Psychologist Conduct lab studies of learning, motivation,
emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition.
-Educational Psychologist Study psychological principles that explain
learning and search for ways to improve education systems. Their interests
range from the application of findings on memory and thinking to the use
of rewards to encourage achievement. -Developmental Psychologist Study how people change and grow over
time- physically, mentally, and socially. In the past, their focus was mainly
on childhood but many now study adolescence, young adulthood, the
middle years, or old age.
-Industrial/Organizational Psychologist Study behavior in the workplace.
Concerned with group decision-making, employee morale, motivation,
productivity, job stress, marketing strategies etc.
-Psychometric Psychologist Design and evaluate tests of mental abilities,
aptitudes, interests, and personality. Nearly all of us have had firsthand
experience with one or more of these tests in school/work.
-Psychological Practitioners goal is to understand and improve peoples
physical and mental health- work in mental hospitals, clinics, schools,
counseling centers, and private practice.
-Psychotherapist Unregulated person who does any kind of
psychotherapy term is not legally regulated
-PsychoanalystPractices psychoanalysis, and who has obtained
specialized training at a psychoanalytic institute and undergone extensive
psychoanalysis personallyIn order to obtain this title must have
undergone psychoanalysis yourself, requires MD or a PhD.
-Psychiatrist A medical doctor (MD) who has completed a three year
residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental
disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians.
-Licensed clinical social worker (LCSW); marriage, family, and child
counselor (MFCC) treats common individual and family problem, but
may also deal with more serious problems such as addiction or abuse.
Licensing requirements vary, but generally has at least and MA in
psychology or social work.
Regulation of Psychological Research, Training, and Practice in Canada
-In 1939 the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was found help
advance psychological research, promote and regulate psychological
education, and support the practice of psychology in Canada.
-Promotes by publishing in journals and sponsoring conferences to
promote the exchange of scientific information.
1) Psychotherapist may have any credential, or none.
2) Psychiatrist Has an MD; tends to take a medical approach to
3) Clinical PsychologistHas a PhD, PsyD, or EdD, and does research
on, or psychotherapy for, mental health problems 4) Research psychologistHas an advanced degree (usually PhD)
and does applied or basic research
5) PsychoanalystIs trained in a therapeutic approach started by
Psychology in the Community
-American Psychological Association (APA) has 53 divisions, psychology‟s
-Psychologists meet with companies to improve worker satisfaction and
What Makes Psychological Research Scientific
3) Reliance on empirical evidence
4) Willingness to make “risky predictions”
-Theory an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports
to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelations
-Hypothesis Statement that attempts to predicts or to account for a set
of phenomena; scientific hypotheses specify relations among events or
variables and are empirically tested
-Operational Definition a precise definition of a term in a hypothesis,
which specifies the operations for observing and measuring the process or
phenomenon being defined
-Confirmation BiasThe tendency to look for or pay attention only to
information that confirms ones own belief.
The Principle of Falsifiability
-Principle of Falsifiability the principle that a scientific theory must make
predictions that are specific enough to expose the theory to the possibility
of disconfirmation; that is, the theory must predict not only what will
happen but also what will not happen.
Descriptive Studies: Establishing the Facts
-Representative Sample a group of individuals, selected from a
population for study, which matches the population on important
characteristics such as age and sex.
-Descriptive Methods methods that yield descriptions of behavior but
not necessarily casual explanations -Case Study a detailed description of a particular individual being
studied or treated
-Observational Studies a study in which the researcher carefully and
systematically observes and records behavior without interfering with the
behavior; it may involve either naturalistic or laboratory observation
-Usually involves many participants
-Often first step in a program of research
-Naturalistic Observation to observe humans/animals in their natural
social environmentsplaygrounds, home, classroom
-Laboratory Observation researchers have more control of the situation
-Psychological Tests (assessment instruments) Procedures used to
measure and evaluate personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes,
interests, abilities, and values.
-Tests typically require people to answer questions orally or written
-Objective Tests/ Inventories measure beliefs, feelings, or behaviors,
which an individual is aware
-Projective Tests are designed to tap unconscious feelings or motives
-StandardizeIn test construction, to develop uniform procedures for
giving and scoring a test.
-Scoring for standardized testing is usually done by referring to Norms
Established standards of performance
-Reliability the consistency of scores derived from a test, from one time
and place to another
-Validity the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to
-Surveys questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about
their experiences, attitudes or opinions.
-National surveys conducted by Ipsos, Harris/Decima or Statistics
-Volunteer Bias a shortcoming of findings derived from a sample of
volunteers instead of a representative sample; the volunteers may differ
from those who did not volunteer
1) Ways in which the games of boys differ from those of girlsNaturalistic
2) Changes in attitudes toward nuclear disarmament after a television
movie about nuclear holocaustSurvey 3) The math skills of children in Canada versus JapanTest
4) Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent
5)The development of a male infant who was reared as a female after his
penis was accidentally burned off during a routine surgeryCase Study
Correlational Studies: Looking for Relations
-Correlational Study a descriptive study that looks for a consistent
relation between two phenomena
-Psychologists would use this to know whether two or more phenomena‟s
are related, if so, how strongly. (Ex: grades related to numbers of hours
spent watching television)
-Correlation (relation) A measure of how strongly two variables are
related to one another
-VariablesCharacteristics of behavior or experience that can be
measured or described by a numeric scale
-Positive CorrelationAn association between increases in one variable
and increases in another- or between decreases in one and in another.
-Negative CorrelationAn association between increases in one variable
and decreases in another
-If no relation exists between two variables, we say that they are
uncorrelated or that there is zero correlation
-Coefficient of CorrelationA measure of correlation that ranges in value
from -1.00 to +1.00
Cautions about Correlations
-Illusory Correlations apparent associations between two things that are
not really related
-Identify each of the following as positive or negative correlation
1) The higher a male monkey‟s level of the hormone testosterone, the
more aggressive he is likely to bePositive
2) The older people are, the less frequently they tend to have sexual
3) The hotter the weather, the more crimes again persons (such as
muggings) tend to occurPositive Experimental Variables
-Experimenta controlled test of a hypothesis in which the researcher
manipulates one variable to discover its effect on another
-Independent Variable a variable that an experimenter