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Psych-Mid 2.doc

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Lawrence Murphy

Ch. 5  Sleep and conversation seem to be interconnected  Animals die w/o sleep  Amount of sleep b4 receiving vaccination may affect the effectiveness of the shot  Sleep plays an important role in remembering things  Sleep deprivation associated w/ Irritability  Brains work the most when we are asleep  Altered states of consciousness- hypnosis, drugs, meditation  Consciousness-awareness of internal and external stimuli  Maintsin some degree of awareness even when we are under anesthesia  Attention and consciousness related- not identical  Mind wandering- people's experience of task-unrelated to thoughts  Distinction between what we control about our mental processes and what just seems to happen is often referred to as the difference between controlled and automatic processes  Odour affects personality  Automatic processing-Malcolm Gladwell  Use of Blink- how quickly and effortlessly some of our judgements are made  EEG-devide that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp  Amplitude-Height  Frequency-Cycles per second  States of consciousness ◦ Beta-13-24cps-Normal ◦ Alpha-8-12-Relaxing, meditation ◦ Theta-4-7-light sleep ◦ Delta-Less than 4-Deep sleep  William Dement-Discovery of REM ◦ First laboratory dedicated to sleep  Biological Rhythms- Periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning ◦ Based on light and darkness  Circadian Rhythms- 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species ◦ Regulates sleep  Body temperature varies rhythmically in a daily cycle-peaking in the afternoon and the low point at the night  Each individual has their own ideal bed time that best promotes the better quality of sleep  When people are isolated circadian cycles run an average of 24.2 hours  Exposure to light readjusts peoples biological clock  When exposed to light receptors in the retina send a direct stimulus in the hypothalumus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus  Melatonin plays a key role in adjusting biological clocks  Circadian rhythms appear to be regulated by multiple internal clocks- central pacemaker located in the SCN  When you lose sleep it accumulates and is known as sleep debt  Every hour is must be paid back  Jet lag caused by getting out of sync with your circadian rhythms  Chronic jet lag appears to be associated w/ cognitive difficulties  Each time zone crossed takes a day to change  Readjustment is easier when travelling westward as you lengthen your day  Spring shift in DST is associated with an increase in traffic accidents during the week after the switch  EMG-records muscular activity and tension  EOG- records eye movement  No obvious transitions point between wakefulness and sleep  Stage 1 is a brief transitional stage of sleep lasting only 1-7 minutes ◦ Breathing and heart rate slow, muscle and body temp drop ◦ Theta waves prominent  Hypnic Jerks-brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep generally during stage 1  Stage 2-Sleep spindles and mixed EEG activity ◦ 10-25 mins ◦ Brief burst of higher frequency brain waves-spindles ◦ Brain waves higher in amplitude and slower in frequency  Body moves into SWS- Slow wave sleeping ◦ Stage 3 and 4 during which high amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG recordings  When sleepers reach what should be stage 1 while in sleep it is known as REM sleep  William Dement coined REM sleep  Nathaniel Kleithman's noticed the rapid eye movement  REM stage marked by irregular breathing and pulse rate ◦ Muscle tone is relaxed so much that bodily movements are minimal nad the sleeper is virtually paralyzed  Different stages of sleep may be implicated in memory  REM- high frequency and low amplitude and vivid dreaming  Non-rem- Stages 1-4  First REM period relatively short but gets progressively longer, peaking at around 40-60 mins  Newborns sleep 6-8 times in a 24 hour period, often exceeding 16 hours  Infants (50%) spend more time in REM than adults (20%)  Trends stronger in men  Ascending reticular-consists of the afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal  Rebound effect- spend extra time in REM after sleep deprivation  REM and slow wave sleep each promote different types of memory  78 types of different sleep disorders  Insomina- chronic problems in getting adequate sleep ◦ Difficulty in falling asleep ◦ Difficulity remaining asleep ◦ Persistent early morning wake up ◦ 35% insomnia  Insomnia increases with age and more common in women  Sedatives lead to memory decrements  Sedatives decrease time spent in slow-wave sleep  Behavioural treatments just as effective as medication in short-term and produce better long term effects with regards to drugs  Narcolepsy-disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking periods ◦ Awake directly into REM sleep  Sleep apnea- frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep  Nightmares-anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep  Night terrors-abrupts awakening from NREM sleep accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic  Somnabulism/Sleepwalking-occurs during first 2 hours of sleep  Safe to awaken people from sleepwalking  Dreams in NREM are less vivid, and less story like  Realize that you are dreaming while still in dream state-lucid dreams  Purpose of dreams is wish fulfillment-Freud  Dreams provide way of problems-solving-Cartright  Hobson and McCarley argue that dreams are simply by-products of bursts of activity emanating from subcortical areas in the brain  Activation-synthesis: dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces wide-awake brain waves during REM sleep  Franz Mesmer- stumbled upon Hypnosis  James braid coined the term hypnotism  Hypnosis-systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility  Made up of 3 parts ◦ Absorption-capacity to reduce or block peripheral awareness and narrow the focus on one's attenntion ◦ Dissociation-ability to separate aspects of perception from mainstream awareness ◦ Suggestibility- tendency to accept direction and information  Meditation- refers to a famliy of practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control  Have beneficial effects on blood pressure  Psychoactive drugs- chemical substancese that modify mental emotional or behavoural functioning  Narcotics/Opiates-capable of relieving pain  Sedatives-sleep-inducing drugs decreasing the CNS  Stimulants-Drugs tend to increase CNS activation  Hallucinogens-Powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning  Cannabis-hemp plant  MDMA- compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinogen  Amphetamines exert their 2 main effects on the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and Dopamine  Dopamine circuits believed to be part of the pleasurable rewarding effects  Psychological dependence exists when a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional craving for the drug- more subtle than physical  Alcohol has the most diverse negative effects on the physical health CH.4  Ian howard known as pioneer in sensation/perception research  Normally people rely on 3 types of cues to determine direction: ◦ Visual ◦ Gravity ◦ Body Direction  In space body direction cannot help people determine directions  Astronauts are dependent are visual cues  Sensation- the stimulant of sense organs  Perception- selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input  Psychophysics-study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience  Threshold-dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect  Absolute threshold- minimum amount of stimulation that an organism to detect  JND-Just noticeable difference-Smallest difference in the amont of stimulation that a specific sense can detect  1/30  Weber's law states that the size of a JDN is a constant proportion of the initial stimulus  Fechner's Law- the magnitude of sensory experience is proportional to the number of JND'S that the stimulus causing the experience is above the absolute threshold  Signal- detection theory proposes that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity  Subliminal perception- registration of the sensory input without conscious awareness  Sensory adaptation- gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation  Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation  Amplitude-Height  Wavelength- distance between peaks  300-750 nm visible light  Lower is UV  Higher is Infrared  Eyes purpose- channel light to retina and house tissue  Light enters through cornea and lens form an upside down image of objects on retina  Lens-transparent eye structure that focuses on light rays falling on the retina  Closer image eyes gets rounder  Pupil- opening in the centre of the iris helps to regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber  When the pupil constricts it lets less light into the eyes but sharpens the image  Saccades- brief fixations at various parts of the stimuli ◦ If these movements didnt occur we would not be able to see image after looking at the same thing for a few seconds- ultimate dissapearing act ◦  Retina contains millions of receptor cells that are sensitive to light  Rods are elongated ◦ 100-125 million ◦ specialized visual receptors that play a role in night vision and peripheral vision  Cones are stubbi
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