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PS101 Midterm #1 - Notes.docx

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Hae Joo Kim

Midterm #1: Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1: What is Psychology? Empirical: Relying or derived form observation, experimentation, or measurement. Psychobabble: Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language. Critical Thinking: The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.  Ask Questions; Be willing to wonder o “Can I recall the events from my childhood accurately?”  Define your terms o By ‘childhood’, I mean ages 3 to 12. Etc.  Examine the evidence o “I feel I recall my fifth birthday party perfectly, but studies show that people often reconstruct past events inaccurately”  Analyze assumptions and biases o “I’ve always assumed that memory is like a tape recorder, but maybe it’s just a bias, because it’s so reassuring.”  Avoid emotional reasoning o “I really want to believe this memory is true, but that doesn’t mean it is”  Don’t oversimplify o Some of my childhood memories could be accurate, others mistaken, and some partly right or wrong”  Consider other interpretations o Some ‘memories’ could be based on what my parents told me later, not on my own recall”  Tolerate uncertainty o “I may never know for sure” Occam’s Razor: The principle of choosing the solution that account for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions. Phrenology: The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be read from bumps on the skull. Three Early Psychologists Wilhelm Wundt  Structuralism – An early psychological approach that emphasizes the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. William James  Fucntionalism – An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behaviour and consciousness Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalysis – A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, which emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. The Major Psychological Perspectives 1. The biological perspective o Emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. 2. The learning perspective o Emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories. 3. The cognitive perspective o Emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behaviour. 4. The sociocultural perspective o Emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour 5. The psychodynamic perspective o Emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy. Evolutionary Psychology: Emphasizes evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behaviour. Behaviorism: An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as determinant of behaviour. Humanist Psychology: Emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour. Feminist Psychology: Analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes. Psychological Practice: Providing health or mental services. Basic Psychology: The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application. Applied Psychology: The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings. Types of Psychotherapists Psychotherapist: Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy Psychoanalyst: A person who practices psychoanalysis, and who has obtained special training and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personally. Psychiatrist: A medical doctor who has completed a three-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians. Clinical Psychologist: Diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems, both mild and severe, has a PhD, an EdD, or a PsyD. Chapter 2: How Psycholgists do Resarch Prewithions, Theory and Hunch Hypothesis operat
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