Study Guides (238,653)
Canada (115,282)
Psychology (638)
PS101 (146)

PS101 Midterm #1 - Notes.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Kathy Foxall

Midterm #1: Introduction to Psychology Chapter 1: What is Psychology? Empirical: Relying or derived form observation, experimentation, or measurement. Psychobabble: Pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological and scientific-sounding language. Critical Thinking: The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote.  Ask Questions; Be willing to wonder o “Can I recall the events from my childhood accurately?”  Define your terms o By ‘childhood’, I mean ages 3 to 12. Etc.  Examine the evidence o “I feel I recall my fifth birthday party perfectly, but studies show that people often reconstruct past events inaccurately”  Analyze assumptions and biases o “I’ve always assumed that memory is like a tape recorder, but maybe it’s just a bias, because it’s so reassuring.”  Avoid emotional reasoning o “I really want to believe this memory is true, but that doesn’t mean it is”  Don’t oversimplify o Some of my childhood memories could be accurate, others mistaken, and some partly right or wrong”  Consider other interpretations o Some ‘memories’ could be based on what my parents told me later, not on my own recall”  Tolerate uncertainty o “I may never know for sure” Occam’s Razor: The principle of choosing the solution that account for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions. Phrenology: The now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits, which can be read from bumps on the skull. Three Early Psychologists Wilhelm Wundt  Structuralism – An early psychological approach that emphasizes the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements. William James  Fucntionalism – An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behaviour and consciousness Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalysis – A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, which emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts. The Major Psychological Perspectives 1. The biological perspective o Emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts. 2. The learning perspective o Emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions; it includes behaviorism and social-cognitive learning theories. 3. The cognitive perspective o Emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behaviour. 4. The sociocultural perspective o Emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour 5. The psychodynamic perspective o Emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy. Evolutionary Psychology: Emphasizes evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behaviour. Behaviorism: An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviour and the role of the environment as determinant of behaviour. Humanist Psychology: Emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential, rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour. Feminist Psychology: Analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behaviour of the two sexes. Psychological Practice: Providing health or mental services. Basic Psychology: The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application. Applied Psychology: The study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the application of psychological findings. Types of Psychotherapists Psychotherapist: Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy Psychoanalyst: A person who practices psychoanalysis, and who has obtained special training and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personally. Psychiatrist: A medical doctor who has completed a three-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under the supervision of more experienced physicians. Clinical Psychologist: Diagnoses, treats, and/or studies mental and emotional problems, both mild and severe, has a PhD, an EdD, or a PsyD. Chapter 2: How Psycholgists do Resarch Prewithions, Theory and Hunch Hypothesis operat
More Less

Related notes for PS101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.