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9 Pages

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Jamie Melling

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Chapter 1 10/27/2013 8:28:00 AM Psychology: The discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment Symbolized with a  Empirical Evidence gathered by careful observation, experimentation, or measurement Can you distinguish between psychobabble and empirical psychology? Psychobabble confirms unsupported popular opinion Empirical approach makes use of research evidence and challenges opinion Pseudoscience is a claim, belief, or practice which is presented as scientific, but does not adhere to a valid scientific method, lacks supporting evidence or plausibility, cannot be reliably tested, or otherwise lacks scientific status Thinking Critically & Creatively Critical thinking The ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion or anecdote. 8 critical thinking guidelines: 1. Ask Questions: Be Willing to Wonder 2. Define Your Terms 3. Examine the Evidence 4. Analyze Assumptions and Biases 5. Avoid Emotional Reasoning 6. Don’t Oversimplify 7. Consider Other Interpretations 8. Tolerate Uncertainty Psychology’s Past Did not rely on empirical methods & evidence Phrenology Discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific personality traits Can be “read” from bumps on the skull Birth of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt Established first psychological laboratory 1879 at the University of Leipzig Goal to make psychology a science Three Early Psychologies: Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis -> Structuralism Early approach that emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements (Wundt & Titchener) Interested in what happens Introspection Observe, analyze and describe your own sensations, mental images, and emotional reactions ->Functionalism Early approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behaviour and consciousness (James & Darwin) Interested in how and why something happens Functionalists broadened field of psychology to include the study of children, animals, religious experiences and stream of consciousness ->Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy (Freud) Physical symptoms due to emotional trauma or conflicts from early childhood Emphasized unconscious motives and desires (i.e., sexual & aggressive) Psychology’s Present Major Psychological Perspectives: 1. Biological perspective approach that emphasizes how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts involves: hormones, brain chemistry, heredity, evolutionary psychology (how past behaviours reflect present behaviours brain damage at birth or child abuse can relate to violence as adult 2. Learning perspective approach that is concerned with how the environment and experiences affect a person’s (or animal’s) actions involves: behaviourism: how environmental rewards and punishments influents behaviour violence increases when it pays off socio-cognitive learning theories: combine elements of behaviourism with thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions violent role models can influence violence in children to behave aggressively 3. Cognitive perspective approach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and reasoning involves: computer models of cognition, infant thinking, and intelligence testing violent people are often quick to snap back and insult 4. Socio-cultural perspective approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour involves: social psychology - study of rules, roles, groups, and relationships people are more aggressive in a crowd then they are alone cultural psychology - study of cultural norms, values, and expectations cultures can influence a child to become more aggressive 5. Psychodynamic perspective approach that emphasizes unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or instinctual energy involves: unconscious thoughts, desires, conflicts Connected to all other areas of psychology, but distinct in its language, methods, and standards of evidence Unconscious thoughts can lead to murder with no reaction or second thought Two Movements that were influenti
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