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PS101 Exam Review

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Eileen Wood

Chapters: 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16, Appendix  Approximately 9 question from each chapter  More on chapter 14, 15, 16 Chapter 1:  What is psychology: it is empirical, theoretically diverse, evolve in a socio-historical context (changed over time)  Structuralism: William Wundt… one of the founders of psychology (WHAT) o Based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into the basic elements and how to investigate them o Self observation of our own conscious experience… looking at “all the different parts”, and how things interact with each other o problems; everyone has its own point of view, personal opinion  Functionalism: William James, function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure (HOW/WHY)  Psychoanalytic Theory: Freud o Unconscious or sexual of memories and behavior o Unconscious states and dreams… o Problems: not testable  Cognitive/biological: processing and the chemical, biological, bases of behavior o Deep into the brain… how they work and how they produce in real life… memory, decision making, language o Problems: use of animal research (ethics)  Evolutionary psychology: examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations… o Many evolutionary hypotheses are untestable  Behaviorism: observed behavior… o Stimulus-response behavior o Problem: peoples perception are also important  Humanism: unique qualities of human… their freedom and their potential for personal growth o Carl rogers, Abraham Maslow o Individuals sense of self is driving an individuals behavior o Problems: hard to define and measure o Primarily arose as a reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism Chapter 2:  Independent variable: condition or event manipulated by experimenter  Dependent variable: aspect of behavior thought to be affected by independent variable  Experimental group: participants who receive special treatment  Control group: similar subjects who do not receive special treatment given to experimental group  Extraneous variables: factors besides independent variable that might affect dependent variable  Experimental research: o Advantages: permits conclusions about cause and effect relationships o Disadvantages: manipulates and control often make experiments artificial… practical realities and ethical concerns make it impossible to conduct experiments on many issues  Descriptive/correlation research: o Naturalistic observation:  Careful, systematic observation, but no intervention with subject… don’t communicate o Case study:  in depth investigation of single participant, typically involving data from many sources… learn a lot about that person very well o Survey:  Questionnaires and interviews are used to gather info about specific aspects of a person o Advantage: broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists do o Disadvantage: can not say that they are positively related o Although a high correlation allows to predict one variable from another, it does not tell us whether a cause and effect relationship is present with the 2 variables  Sampling bias: exists when a sample is not representative of th population which was drawn  Placebo effect: occurs when participants’ expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment  Social desirability bias: a tendency to give socially approved answered to question about oneself  Response set: a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the question  Experimenter bias: occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained  Double blind procedure: a research strategy in which neither subjects or experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group Appendix A:  Graphing data: o Frequency distribution… T chart o Histogram… bar graph o Frequency PolyGram: line graph  Measuring central tendency: median (middle), mean (numbers together then divided), mode (is there the most)  Negative skewed distribution… tail pointing to left  Positive skewed distribution… tail pointing to right  Variability: refers to how much the scores tend to vary or depart from the mean score  Standard deviation… look at slides/textbook  Measuring correlation: o Correlation coefficient:  Numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables o Positive correlation:  Direct relation ship… one goes up, other goes up o Negative correlation:  Indirect relationship… one goes up, other goes down Chapter 6: Sensation and perception  Sensation: stimulation of the sense organs  Perception: is the selection, organization and the interpretation of sensory output  Absolute threshold: o Minimum amount of stimulation needed for an organism to detect a stimulus 50% of the time o For ex. AB. THRES of human vision is a candle flame seen at 50km on a dark clear night  Vision: the stimulus is light… o Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave, moving, naturally enough at the speed of light o Wave length… across o Amplitude… up/down o Purity… richness of colour o Brightness… intensity o Hue… colour itself  Diagram of EYE: o lens of the eye focuses light on the retina, result is an upside down image o The brain interprets this upside down pattern of stimulation as something that is right side up o Rods: respond to dim light o Cones: involved in colour vision  Colour: o 2 kinds of colour mixture…  addictive (putting colours together to make colours  subtractive: take colours away to make a colour (green, take away blue… make yellow) o the opponent process theory: pairs of receptors that work antagonistically o trichromatic theory of colour vision: 3 receptors that combine through addictive colour mixing o Gestalt principles: whole is greater than the sum  Proximity, closure, similarity, continuity o Binocular cues: visual cues to depth or distance requiring two eyes o Convergence: turning inward of the eyes which occurs when they focus on an nearby object o Retinal disparity: close one eye, separation of the object o Monocular cues: visual depth or cues that can be used by one eye only  Sound: o Amplitude is the principal determinant of loudness, but loudness ultimately depends on an interaction between amplitude and frequency (look at chart on slides)  Hearing: o External: depends on a vibration of air molecules… pinna o Middle: depends on vibration of moveable bones… ossicles o Inner: depends on waves in a fluid… cochlea  Taste: o Psychological stimuli: taste sensation (bitter, sweet, sour, sweet) o Psychical stimuli: chemical substances  Smell: o The olfactory system  Physical = chemical molecules  Psychological= too many to classify … different smells  Receptors for smell are olfactory cilia  Touch: o Physical = mechanical, thermal and chemical energy that impinge on the skin o Psychological = warm/cold, pressure Chapter 4: The Brain  CNS o Brain and spinal cord o Function: receives, interprets and stores incoming information from PNS  PNS: o Receiver which sends input to the CNS and handles output o PNS contains 2 types of nerves  Sensory nerves (afferent): which take in external stimuli form receptors in eyes, ears, etc  Motor nerves (efferent): carry messages out to muscles and glands o PNS broken down…  Somatic:  processes sensory input from external environment through sensory nerves  carry messages from CNS to skeletal muscles for voluntary movement  autonomic:  intuitive: handles involuntary regulation  ANS broken down.. sympathetic (fight/flight response… gets body ready for stress situation); parasympathetic (calms body down after stress)  Parts of a nerve: o Dendrites: receive signals o Axons: transmit signals (exit) o Cell body: contains organelles… decides to fire or not to fire cell o Myelin sheath: protects neuron, aids in acceleration transmission of messages  How neurons communicate: o Synapse: Space between 2 neurons that transfer nerve messages with help of neurotransmitters o Action potential: the passing of change through neurons as the message (moving charge) o Neurotransmitters: facilitate either the firing (excitatory) or non firing (inhibitory…not happening) of an action potential in the next cell  Biochemical #1. Neurotransmitters: o Serotonin: sleep, appetite, mood (depression) o Dopamine: voluntary movement, pleasure, memory o Acetylcholine: muscle movement, cognition, emotion, memory o Norepinephrine: excitatory… relations to sympathetic nervous system o glutamate: excitatory, helps with cognition, memory, learning o Gaba: inhibitory, slows things down… parasympathetic nervous system  Effects if neurotransmitter imbalance: o Gaba: sleep problems, eating disorders, epilepsy, anxiety disorders o Acetylcholine: Alzheimer’s o Dopamine: Parkinson’s, schizophrenia o Norepinephrine and serotonin: depression  Biochemical #2. Endorphins: o Mostly either prolong or limit the effects of neurotransmitters o Key function: increase pain tolerance during fight/flight… firing pain messages temporarily o Feeling of euphoria  Biochemical #3. Hormones: o Melatonin: promotes sleep and regulates biological rythms o Oxytocin: pituitary gland o Adrenal hormones: adrenal glands o Sex hormones: gonads adrenals  1. Androgens  2. Estrogens  3. Progesterone  Mapping the brain: o EEG: mapping brain using electronic activity within brain o TMS: powerful magnets to temporarily inactivate brain areas and see effects o Lesions: burning parts of brain o PET scan: injected chemical indicators to show which areas are being used most o MRI: use magnets to cause and analyze microscopic vibrations o fMRI: more advanced version of MRI  tour of the brain: o spinal cord = pons and medulla o pons: pons is on top… regulates sleep, arousal, dreaming o medulla: regulates breathing, heartbeat o RAS: screens incoming into, if necessary, will route to higher areas o Cerebellum: balance, coordination of movement… some sensory analysis o Thalamus: relay station o Pituitary gland: takes commands from hypothalamus and then passes the commands to corresponding glands and organs o Amygdala: assess sensory into and makes emotional decision on how to view it o Hippocampus: helps route memories to the right storage areas of the brain o Hypothalamus: goes HAM… regulates core drives  Cerebrum: biggest part of brain o Occipital lobe: visual o Temporal lobe: auditory o Parietal lobe: touch  Somatic sensory cortex: receives sensory input o Front love: higher order cognition, personality, voluntary movement o Corpus collossusm: separates right from left hemisphere o Laterization: tendency for one hemisphere dominating a task Chapter 5: Consciousness  Circadian rhythms: about a day… 24 hours… rely on external (outside, time) and internal (body temperature) stimuli  Long term rhythms: SAD (sadder feelings in the winter) & PMS (hormone cycle)… more than 24 hours  Sleep/wake cycles: o Researchers use EEG (measuring brainwaves), EOG (records eye movements), EMG (measuring muscle movements)  Sleep deprivation o Can impair attention, reaction time, motor coordination, decision making o After prolonged sleep deprivation… hallucinations/delusions o Important for memory consolidation  EEG patterns… o Beta: normal waking thought.. alert problem solving o Alpha: deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation o Theta: light sleep o Delta: deep sleep  Sleep/wake cycles: o Stage 1…  Brief transtitional stage of light seep that usually lasts for 1-7 minutes  Theta waves prominent  Hypnic jerks o Stage 2:  Brief bursts of high frequency brain waves  10-25 minutes o stage 3 and 4:  reach slow wave sleep in about 30 minutes and stay there for roughly 30 minutes  delta waves (mostly in stage 4)  1 (initial), 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, 1 (REM), repeat o REM:  Subsequent stage 1… rapid eye movement  When you reach what should be stage 1 once again, usually re
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