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notes chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Don Morgenson
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 12: PERSONALITY: Theory, Research and Assessment  Psychodynamic theories include all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Freud focusing on unconscious mental forces  By focusing on the influences of early childhood experiences on unconscious motives and conflicts and on the methods people use to copes with their sexual aggressive urges, psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality and psychological disorders Personality is divided into three components: Id: primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the please principles (reservoir for psychic energy) - Houses the raw biological urges (sleep, eat, poo) o Operates according to the pleasure principles: demands immediate gratification of its orders o Engages in primary process thinking which is primitive, illogical irrational, fantasy operated Ego: deciding making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle -Mediates between the id, and the external social world with its expectations and normal regarding suitable behavior -Guided by the reality principle: which seeks to deal gratification of the ds urges until appropriate outlets and situation can be found - Wants to maximize gratification however engages in secondary process thinking: rational realistic and oriented toward problem solving Superego: most component of personality that incorporates social standard about what represents right and wrong -Emerges out of the ego at 3-5 years old -Strives for moral perfection  Conscious consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time  Preconscious contains material just beneath the surface of awareness and can easily be retrieved  Unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but exert great influence on behavior - Ego and superego operate at all 3 levels of awareness; id is integrally unconscious expresses urges in conscious level through the ego -Behavior is an outcome of ongoing series of internal conflicts -People’s lives are dominated by conflict: 1. Sex and aggression are subject to more complex and ambiguous social controls that other basic motives 2. Sexual and aggressive drives are thwarted more regularly than other basic biological urges  Unconscious battles produce anxiety gat slips the surface of the conscious awareness attributed by the ego worrying about: o Id getting out of control and leading to severe negative consequences o Superego getting out of control and making you feel guilty about transgression  Defense mechanisms are largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emptions such as anxiety and guilt o Mental maneuvers that work through self deception -Repression: keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious (most basic and widely used defense mechanism) Self-deception seen through: Projection attributing ones own thoughts feeling and motives to another Thoughts of guilt Displacement: diverting emotional feelings (anger) from their original source off substitute target  Reaction formation: behaving in a way that is exactly the opposite of one’s true feelings  Regression: reversion to immature patterns of behavior ex. Responding with a childish behavior in a situation of anxiety  Identification is bolstering self esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group  Regressive coping style and shown that repressors have an impoverished memory for emotional events and negative feedback and that they habitually avoid unpleasant emotions by distracting themselves with pleasant thoughts and memories Development: Psychosexual Stages  Individuals personality has been laid down since the age of 5  Sexual urges shift in focus as children progress form one stage of development to another Psychosexual stages: developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality Fixation: failure to move forward from one stage to another  Caused by excessive gratification of needs at a particular stage or by excessive frustration of those needs  Leads to an overemphasis on the psychosexual needs during the fixed stage Oral stage  0-1, source of erotic stimulation is the mouth (sucking biting chewing)  Form the basis r obsessive eating or smoking Anal Stage  2-3, erotic pleasure from bowel movements (expelling or retaining feces)  Toilet training, first systematic effort to regulate child’s biological urges Phallic Stage  4-5, source of erotic stimulation comes from genitals (masturbating)  During this stage the oedipal complex emerges Oedipal complex: children manifest erotically tinged desires for they’re opposite sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility toward their same sex parents Latency and Genital Stages  6-12  Focuses on expanding social concepts beyond the immediate family  Social urges reaper and focus on the genitals once again  Sexual energy is channeled towards other peers of the other sex  Foundation of adult personality has been solidly entrenched by this time  Unconscious sexual conflict robbed in childhood experiences cause most personality disturbances Jung’s Analytical Psychology  Analytical psychology; differentiate from Freud’s  Emphasized unconscious determinants of personality however, propped that the unconscious consist of two layers  First layer: personal unconscious Personal unconscious: houses material that is not within ones conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten  Second layer: collective unconscious Collective unconscious: storehouse of latent memory traces inherited form peoples ancestral past  Shares with the entire human race, the whole spiritual heritage of mankind’s evolution; called archetypes Archetypes: emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning  Ideas show up frequently in dreams and are manifested in a cultures use of symbols in art, literature and religion  Believed images contain important messages form the unconscious  First to describe introverted and extraverted Introverts: tend to preoccupy with the internal world of their own thoughts feelings and experiences  Generally contemplative and aloof Extraverts: tend to be interested in the external world of people and things Outgoing, talkative and friendly Alder’s Individual Psychology  New approach was christened individual psychology  Foremost source of human motivation is striving for superiority  Striving does not necessarily translate into the pursuit of dominance or high status Striving for superiority: universal drive to adapt improve oneself and mast life’s challenges  Early inferiority feelings from adults on children motivate them to acquire new skills and develop talents  Striving for superiority is the prime goal of life rather than psychical gratification Compensation: involves efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing ones abilities  Compensation is entirely normal  Inferiority feelings can become excessive, resulting in inferiority complex Inferiority complex: exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy  Parental pampering or neglect could cause this  Personality disturbances by nothing that excessive inferiority feelings can pervert the normal process, engage in overcompensation to conceal, even from themselves their feelings of inferiority o Achieve high status and gain power o Engage in unconscious self deception worry about appearances than reality Sulloway  First borns should be more conscientious but les agreeable and open to experience than later borns o First born tend to be conventional and achievement oriented where as later-borns then to be liberal and rebellious Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives 1. Unconscious forces can influence behavior 2. Internal conflict often plays a key role in generating psychological distress 3. Early childhood experiences can have powerful influences on adult personality 4. People who use defense mechanisms to reduce their experiences of unpleasant emotions Critics: 1. Poor testability: ideas are vague and conjectural to permit a clear test 2.inadequate evidence: often been characterized as inadequate as they depend too heavily on clinical case studies 3. Sexism. Characterized by sexism bias towards women Behavioral Perspectives Behaviorism: theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Skinners Idea Applied to Psychology  Overt conditioning were never meant to be a theory of personality but has been applied to as an explanation of personality Personality Structure: A View from the Outside  Skinner (radicalism) argued that its useless to speculate about private unobservable cognitive processes o Focused on how the external environment mold overt behavior o Behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli  People show patterns of behavior because they have some stable response tendencies that they have acquired though experiences  May change in future as a result of new experiences, endure enough to create a certain degree of consistency in behavior  Personality is a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus reactions Personality Development as a Product of Conditioning  Responses are acquired though learning  Human responses are shaped by overt condition  Environmental consequences reinforcement, punishment and extinction determine a persons response pattern  Personality development is a life long development o Conditioning strengths/weakens response tendencies mechanically-without the persons conscious participation Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory  Research on behavior therapy and the determinants of aggression Cognitive Processes and Reciprocal Determinism  A cognitive flavor to behaviorism o Disagree with skinner: humans obviously are conscious thinking feeling beings o Neglecting cognitive process ignoring the most distinction and important feature of human behavior Social learning theory/social cognitive theory: modified branch of behaviorism  Personality is shaped by learning  Condition is not a mechanical process in which people are passive participants o People are self organizing proactive self reflecting and self regulating not just reactive organisms shaped by external events o Important roles of foreword directed planning noting that people set goals for themselves  Reciprocal determinism: o Environment does determine behavior, behavior also determines the environment; people can act to alter their environment o Personal factors (cognitive structures such as beliefs and expectancies determine and are determine both by behavior and environment Reciprocal determinism: idea that internal mental events, external environmental; events, and overt behavior all influence on another Humans are neither masters of their own destiny not hapless victims buffeted about by thee environment – shape their environment to an extent Observational Learning Observational learning: occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observations of others who are called models  Classical and operant conditioning can occur vicariously when one person observes another’s condition  Peoples characteristic patterns of behavior are shaped by the models they are exposed to Model: a person whose behavior is observed by another  People are prone to intimate the behavior of people whom they consider attractive or powerful o Also between those we find similarities o If model’s behavior has positive outcomes Self-Efficacy  Personal factors govern b
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