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GS 201 Study Guide *FINAL

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Mindi Foster

ood luck everyone. welcome :D PART 1 – Concepts 3 x 10%=30% In this section, you will be asked to define and explain the significance for the study of theory in global studies of three (3) of five (5) terms. Your answer should be approximately 1 page (double spaced). The concepts will be drawn from the following list: State of nature: - Hypothetical device created by Locke, which involved taking away all authority (no government at all). It is all abstract. It is characterized by: - Perfect Freedom: individuals are free to act as they deem fit. - Equality: individuals have reciprocal power and jurisdiction (everyone has power). No one is superior or inferior, there is no authority. - Law of Nature: It obligated individuals to preserve themselves(reason; not to harm, destroy, etc) We are not allowed to take lives (they are god’s). Everyone executes the laws (everyone enforces them when they are violated, punishment not guided by passion and is proportional to the crime) -Origin of Property Rights- god gave the world to human beings and ordered them to appropriate nature and to preserve their lives (use it to the best of their abilities). The use of labour to extract from the commons creating private property. You extract/produce something with your labour and it becomes your property. Conditions of appropriation: - No spoilage: take only what you can use, no waste - Leave enough that others may use it as well (BUT, appropriating everything while giving away the excess, or selling because money cannot spoil, is okay. Appropriating land is productive.) - Inequalities can make life in the SON unbearable, it creates increased violence. - SON tends to regenerate into State of War, no avoid this people quite for the Social Contract. Significance: • justifies inequalities It is significant because it explains why we got states, the function of the state is to govern · there is a major inconvenience, we can't dispute laws, we lack the ability to govern Social contract: (John Locke, Rousseau, Hobbes) - A theory proposed by John Locke that individuals have willingly consented to surrender some of their freedoms and submit to authority of the state in exchange for the protection of their rights. - Individuals give up two natural rights: - Right to preserve themselves and others - Right to execute the law -This lead to the development of civil society and government - Natural rights became civil rights Significance: • Negative liberty versus positive liberty: • Negative: “Freedom from…” o connected with classical liberalism o wanted an anarchic form of government (meaning, no overarching government to intervene in the lives of individuals) → or no government at all o freedom from the state o classical liberalism had a specific type of equality • positive: use the state for social good o connected with reform liberalism o create government programs to help those disadvantaged (education, health benefits, etc) o wanted more social equality Significance • use of the state • utilitarian argument (using the state for the greater good) Alienation: • As a class of people, the proletariat had nothing, No independent property, unable to make a living without being wage laborers, Workers sold their creative energies to a capitalist who thereafter controlled their productive activities. • The proletariat were thereforeALIENATED in all ways possible: from the means of production, from their own experience, from their creativity and labor power, Private property is the product - the result - of alienated labor, of the external relation of the worker to nature and him/herself. • What are the 4 types of alienation? 1. Product 2. Process 3. Others 4. · 4 ways that capitalism created alienation (how the proletariat were alienated) o 1.Alienating producers from their means of production -Used to have their own land, now landless -This is how the capitalist class structure developed – creation of the proletariat -Alienated workers from the products of their work o 2.Alienating them from their own human potential -Labourers lost their ability to be creative – their “species being” -Sold their creative energies to a capitalist who then controlled their production o 3.Alienating humans from each other o 4. Not only alienated from the products of their labour, but also alienated within the labour process itself Significance • With revolution, the proletariat overcome their alienation. The whole point of the uprising is to gain back their identity and individuality. Historical materialism: • From Marx • The idea that everything is shaped by economics • the struggle between agency (“make something happen”) and structure (constraints of the system) • Mode (how society distributes the material necessities of life=wage labour) + Forces (tools or technology that humans have developed to make use of raw material and resources=the factory) = Means of Production • It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence but rather social existence which determines their reality Significance • Commodity Fetishism: • Marx believed that individuals within society held such value and power to commodities that they would unknowingly alienate themselves in order to possess these material goods. This idea of materialism Marx termed “commodity fetishism” has become so extreme that even social relationships formed in society can be based on material things, and who belongs to what particular class • The value and power held to commodities is what empowered the capitalist system • separating the worker from their labour • the use value of the product is determined by the market rather than the labour that went into making the product • Maximizes surplus value • Not about the value that went into it • Smith says the market determines the value Marx says its deeper than that Significance • perpetuates capitalism and alienation Protestant Ethic: • From Weber • Capitalism is based on a behaviour and set of values that originates in Protestantism and have become internalized in secular morals • Weber aligns these ideas with the Protestant faith: o time is money o money creates money o not everything you “own” is yours o spending a day idoling isn’t just losing the wage you didn’t earn, it’s that wage in the bank after a year of interest o economic rationality within the self  Averous: desire to get more money o not just about making a living  duty to earn money, make it grow, and earn more o wealth for the sake of wealth  not old-fashioned greed, but working hard and earning money to make it grow Correct me if im wrong- but this thing should have a greater focus on the Calvinist? i just think this thing misses the main point? - Yeah i agree - The protestant ethic was the underlying reason that capitalism was able to work. Protestant ethic argues against Marx’s economic superstructure, saying that religion helped to shape the economic base. (saying that it is more complex than just economics) - Roots the change to capitalism to calvinism. Branches of Roman catholic that believes in pre-determination. The moment you are born, God has selected you or not. Calvinists expelled from Europe b/c of their beliefs, migrated to the US. You have to believe you are one of the chosen ones, that can be proved through the “calling” - which you can tell by your financial success. - Even if individuals were not protestant, they were still influenced because it was socially conditioned into society. Significance • The significance is that Weber is trying to show how economics and knowledge shape each other and religion. • the reason capitalism occurred in the United States the way it did versus the Orient • Can this link to ideology? Iron cage of bureaucracy: • The ordering in it is a characteristic of modern society. Belief that society should be organized of bureaucracy. Normality, systemization, universality. • It limits human s to being a number or statistic rather then being an acutal free individual • Stifles individual initiative, depersonalizing, does not hit individual cases, nd distances actors from the effects of their actions. [2 reading] • Example- drones • Distances man from reality. Compares this to bureaucracy • Similar in that they both believe that structures shapes the behaviours of individuals • Believes individuals are unique, but also caged in, hence the iron cage Significance • Individuals don’t have much choice, they have to adapt to the system Lockean property right: • God gave the world to human beings and ordered them to appropriate nature and to preserve their lives (use it to the best of their abilities). The use of labour to extract from the commons creating private property. You extract/produce something with your labour and it becomes your property. • Conditions of appropriation: o No spoilage: take only what you can use, no waste o Sufficiency: Do not take more then you need o Leave enough that others may use it as well when they’re ready o BUT, appropriating everything while giving away the excess, or selling because money cannot spoil, is okay. Appropriating land is productive. Significance • The significance is that Locke is justifying inequality-some people have more than others, rather than individuals having more because of labour power or because they did more. • Also a justification of colonialism with Sufficiently limitation Express versus tacit consent: • Express Consent: when you voice or actively consent to something (I.e. when you consent through voice or writing) only really possible for white males • Allows one to vote, own property etc • Tacit Consent: when your consent is assumed or when you raise no objection o Locke: If you do not consent, you can leave, or you can stay with tacit consent, where you are in the society, and enjoying the protection of civil society. You are not a member, but you are consenting. Significance • It justifies inequalities, especially in terms of negative versus positive liberties for those with tacit versus express consent. 'The good': • if you are able to run the race, comes from reform liberalism, the good life, we should have the ability to define what the good life means to us, Marx productive work, friedan, women want the good life as well. • Reform Liberalism views the good as benefiting from the state and its institutions and policies · Get to the good by positive liberty, how are we going to get access to it, you can run the race doesn’t mean youll get it • • TH Green is main theorist • Classic Liberalists would see the good as negative liberty.(Removal of state participation) Significance • National minorities: • In his thesis, Kymlicka states that in diverse societies, liberal commitment to equality will require special rights for marginalized groups • National minorities are groups that have things such as history, community, territory, language and culture in common with one another. Each of these national minority groups may have become the minority involuntarily – through ways such as colonization, conquest, etc. He defines national minorities in terms of their culture, and argues that if they want to retain their culture, they should be recognized as a distinct group and have the right to self-government on a permanent basis, because these rights are inherent. o As opposed to ethnic groups, which are immigrant groups whose immigration was voluntary and Kymlicka argues that these groups generally wish to integrate into the society and culture that they enter • He starts his argument with the concept of societal culture, for which he differentiates between national minorities and immigrant groups o Societal culture: culture that provides its members with meaningful ways of life in all spheres of human activities o Immigrant groups do not maintain a societal culture o National minorities are able to recreate their societal culture as well as o are present at founding of the nation o prior history of self-government; o common culture; o common language; o governing selves through institutions Significance • Manifest versus latent Orientalism: • Latent Orientalism:(Subtle) o unconscious and deeply rooted positivity or truth about the Orient and its people  silent indifference, feminine penetrability, malleability  in need of Western redemption, attention and reconstruction • Manifest Orientalism: (orientalism) o various stated views about Oriental society, languages, literature, history and sociology, etc… • The latent and Manifest forms together produce and justify the doctrine of Orientalism • Example: Achebe and Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness Significance • Orientalist: Someone who studies Orientalism like Edward Said. The theory explains that western powers had more power than the rest. Most significantly, they had power over knowledge production and therefore, they can create the image of the Orient and that image will soon become widely accepted as truth. But, the image that we have of the orient, is a false one and the bias of the knowledge production process makes the orient seem more barbaric and primitive than they actually are. The Orient is basically put down, so the West can project themselves as superior in comparison. Art, literature and other cultural things were used to construct the image of the “Rest.” Important theorists/ Readings: Edward Said, Chinua Achebe Significance • Liberal feminism versus Socialist feminism Liberal Feminism: • fundamental gender- ***Principle of Equality • equal political rights • equality of opportunity (access to education, etc…) • reproductive rights (ex. birth control) • use the state for social good • gave more social good using the state ex child care benefits • if men have it - women should 2nd wave Socialist Feminism: Engles • interwoven oppressions: - role of class in gender relations - role of gender relations in capitalism (reproductive labour) • women’s liberation requires a socialist revolution • socialist vision of gender-blind equality • combination of radical and Marxist feminism • Saw capitalism as a problem so they avoided using the state Significance Mill - liberal first wave helped to shape way for women to gain equal rights in the 1800s Suffrage: • associated with the first wave of feminism • 19th & early 20th centuries • Came about from the abolition movement • women trying to get the vote - equality before the law: the suffrage movement • Canadian suffrage battles won: 1916-1917 (Western provinces + Ontario), 1918+ (Nationally, Atlantic provinces), 1940 (Quebec) Significance • ‘The Problem that Has No Name’: • Betty Friedan- 1960’s- the problem with no name deals with oppression faced by the women in this timeframe. The american dream was the reason behind this, families moved into the Suburbs, men made all the income, and women were suppose to be housewives. However; women started to feel a malaise and they felt that they had no right to be unhappy. It wasn’t until Betty Friedan realized the oppression and wrote a book which proved that all women were unhappy and oppressed. This is what started the revolution • The significance of this is… o Friedan states, “the chains that bind her in her trap are chains in her own . o mind and spirit. They are chains made up of mistaken ideas and misinterpreted facts, of incomplete truths and unreal choices. They are not easily seen and not easily shaken off” o the difficulty that being oppressed and repressed has on the mentality o relates to Weber ‘iron cage’ in which one can see freedom, but they are still trapped by the invisible bars that they cannot see that leads them to fulfillment o can also relate to disciplinary methods in that if women voiced their unhappiness they would be labelled as selfish and do not care about their family Historical blocs: Significance it is the relation between these forces that shape modern conditions, such as a period of time people believe in the same dominant ideology. Structures and super structures form historical blocs, its the idea that the economic system is not the only determinism. It is the idea that base, superstructure all work together • Finance capital/industrial capital/international capital • Groups (civil society, public, state) forming together with different identities to create a new hegemony/government • Move from one historical boc to another by utilizing the civil society, ideology, practice, & common sense • Marx defined historical blocs by their relationship to the economy, whereas Gramsci defined it as the relationship to the whole (base and superstructure) • Laws, government, politics, etc. Hegemony: Hegemony is when someone in a state of power has consent from the ones they are controlling. Whether they know they are giving consent for the treatment they are getting from those who have power of them, they are giving it. Those in the state of power follow the quotation “Give a little to gain a lot”. They listen and fill the needs of the consumers to stay in a position over them. Example: A cigarette company will CONSENT to to Government on putting warning labels on their products to keep selling their product. They consent to this because the people buying cigarettes are already hooked and know about the consequences, yet will buy them. • A phase of apparent organic unity across dominant & subordinate classes • A way of thinking instilled in all areas, not just the state; through church, education, etc… → teaching people a way to think • Explains how the state, supported by a specific political group, changes the status quo - Is a part of each sector (political, economic, social) - Internalized power - A certain way of life is dominant - Ideology; way of seeing things - Workers internalize the oppression from owners Significance • Violence (Fanon): Fanon believed that decolonization had to be a violent act as colonization itself was violent. By using the metaphor of health, Fanon justifies the use of violence to overthrow the power of the European Sector (the colonizers). Compared to Gandhi, he offers a completely different approach. He also believed that violence is the only way to reconstruct the colonized people’s identity- something they lost during the colonial rule. The European sector (the colonizers) build a society that it meant to last. Fanon raises the question are the natives never really free from colonialism when the European leaves remain of their societies in the colonies. Fanon believes that they have to remove their buildings and stop speaking their language to fully be free from the Europeans Significance • Colonization - violent - Decolonization - violent • Cultural - colonization making it okay, normalization of hierarchy • structural direct violence, don't physically harm someone but can harm their individuality and create poverty • india - english official language - indirect violence • internalization of violence - it is impossible to be a ‘sane’ mentally stable black male - not because they are not healthy but because white males bullshit → same can apply to women Docile bodies: • Bodies that can be manipulated, controlled, molded, and crafted into a certain way to fit a certain criteria. Examples would include social and cultural norms being ingrained into someone for them to respond to the norms of a culture. Examples: Raising your hand when you want to answer a question in class • Foucault uses the examples of soldiers in the military, whose every action is dictated and modified to fit others’ standards. The soldiers are then monitored to ensure they comply with what they have been taught. • Docile: easily managed, handled; readily trained or taught • produces subjectivity of what it means to be, as an example, a soldier → masculinity & the typical expectations placed on soldiers • Importance of internalization (allows docility to exist) → people are blind to the control that is inflicted on them Significance • bodies that are manipulated and controlled • we are willing to let this happen incautiously Social Space (LeFebvre): • Social space contains the social relations of production & reproduction • Determines how we are with each other & how we think about ourselves (not physical space) • Abstract Space: “capitalism relied upon & produced abstract space”; “commodified & bureaucratized space arranged in the interests of capital & produced as a concerted attempt to define the appropriate meaning of public space & what citizens can do in it” (When Place Becomes Race; pg. 8 - last article in textbook) • 3 types • 1. Perceived Space: how it is seen, everyday routines & spatial practices; how you think you should move around a space; organizes social life in specific ways- how it is seen ex. classroom- what is the dominant w
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