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Final

Psych EXAM REVIEW FINAL.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS101
Professor
Lawrence Murphy
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology Exam Review A New Science is BornPsychologys intellectual parents were the diciplines of philosophy and physiology scholars in both were exploring questions about the mind by the 1870sGerman professer Wilhelm Hundt 18321920 established the first formal laboratory for research in psychology at the University of Leipzig in 1879 1879 christened as psychologys date of birthoCharacterized as founder of psychologyoDeclared that the new psychology would be a science modelled after fields such as physics and chemistryoPrimary focus was consciousness awareness of the immediate experience oTherefore psych became the scientific study of conscious experience18831893 24 new psychological research labs sprang up in the US and Canada in schools G Stanley Hall 18461924 established Americas first research lab at John Hopkins university in 1883oLaunched Americas first psych journal 1887oDriving force behind APA first president 1892oJames Mark Baldwin and James Gibson Hume attended meetingsThe Battle of the Schools Begins Structuralism vs FunctionalismStructuralismEmerged through Englishman Edward TitchenerBased on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how those elements are relatedIdentify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience eg sensations feelings images Most of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision hearing touchDepended on a method of introspection the careful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experienceoSubjects usually exposed to auditory tones optical illusions visual stimuli under controlled varied conditions and asked to analyze what they experiencedLimitations if you depend solely on an individiuals reflection to document a phenomenon there is no independent evaluation of that claimFunctionalismEmerged through the work of William James 18421910 American scholar who created perhaps the most influential text in the history of psychology Principles of Psychology 1890Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function of purpose of consciousness rather than its structureJames was impressed with Darwins concept of natural selection heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus become selected over timeoTheory suggested that characteristics of species must serve some purpose thus James noted that consciousness obviously is an important characteristic of our species and psychology should investigate its functions rather than structureJames argued that structuralism interrupted the continuous flow of thoughts in consciousness called the stream of consciousnessMore interested in how people adapt their behaviour to the demands of the real world around themFunctionalists such as James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey began to investigate mental testing patterns of development in children the effectiveness of educational practices and behavioural differences of the sexesAttracted women to the field of psychology Margaret Floy Washburn was the first woman in the US to receive a PhD in psychology author of book The Animal Mind 1908 which served as a precursor to behaviourismFostered the development of behaviourism and applied psychologyWatson Alters Psychologys Course as Behaviourism Makes its DebutFounded by John B Watson behaviourism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviouroWatson was proposing psychologists abandon study of consciousness and focus on directly observable behavioursoBelieved the power of scientific method rested on the idea of verifiability scientific claims can always be verified or disproved by anyone but depends upon studying things that can be observed objectively Behaviour refers to any overt observable response or activity by an organismWatson believed each is made not born behaviour is governed primarily by the environment natureBehaviourists began to explore stimulus any detectable input from the environment eg light waves advertisements remarks by a friendObserved what is called a stimulusresponse relationship often using laboratory animals because they were easier to controlBehaviourism was partly attributable to the discovery made by Ivan Pavlov showing that dogs could be trained to salivate in response to auditory stimulus such as tone Shows how stimulusresponse bonds are formedThe Humanist RevoltMany psychologists thought behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory were dehumanizing failed to recognize unique qualities of human behaviourThis led to humanism a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growthSEE TABLE 12 pp 13Humanists take an optimistic view of human natureoPeople are not pawns of their animal heritage or environmental circumstancesoResearch on animals not relevant because of their differences to humansCarl Rogers 19021987 and Abraham Maslow 19081970oRogers human behaviour governed primarily by each individuals sense of self or self concept which animals lackoBoth said that to fully understand peoples behaviour psychologists must take into account the fundamental drive toward personal growthPsychology Comes of Age as a ProfessionApplied psychology the branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problemsClinical psychology first arm of psych to emerge the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders oFew psychologists involved in clinical workWWIImany academic psychologists were pressed into service as clinicians decided to continue after the warPsychology Returns to its Roots Renewed Interest in Cognition and PhysiologyRenewed interest in consciousness now called cognitionCognition the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeJean Piaget 1954 research on childrens cognitive developmentNoam Chomsky 1957 research on the psychological underpinnings of languageHerbert Simon and colleagues began groundbreaking research on problem solvingPsychology Broadens Its Horizons Increased Interest in Cultural DiversityMost studies were done on middleclass white students because of cost and convenienceEthnocentrism the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others as the standard for judging the worst of foreign waysPsychology Adapts The Emergence of Evolutionary PsychologyEvolutionary psychology examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generationsNatural selection favours behaviours that enhance organisms reproductive successWilliam James among others influenced by Darwins theory of natural selectionCritics say its untestable speculative accounts for obvious behaviourPsychology Moves in a Positive Direction The Positive Psychology MovementMartin Seligman elected president of APA in 1997 had epiphany15 year old daughter scolded him for being too grumpy he realized his approach to life was unnecessarily negativeapplied this to psychology2Launched the positive psychology movementPositive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence1Study of positive subjective experiencesemotions2Study of positive individual traits3Study of positive institutions and communitiesDifficulty in studying Psychology1Complexity is it possible for the grain to understand the whole system
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