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PS 101 course review for each chapter

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

Chapter 1 Beginnings of Psych before 1879 there was Physiology that studied body and Philosophy that studied the mind Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 Germany campaigned to make psychology a sciencemade the first psych lab in 1879study mind and mental processes conscious first psych journal 1881his school is the location of psychologygraduates spread worldwide G Stanley Hall creates the first psych lab at Johns Hopkins in US 1883 psych grows in North America Baldwin and Gibson Hume from TO establish American Psych Assoc Structuralism vs Functionalism becomes the big debateStructuralism Ed Titchener analyzing consciousness into basic elements ex Sensations feelings images vision hearing touch largely Introspection observing ones own experiences systematically flaw this allows for no objective evaluation Functionalists gain edge historically due to thisFunctionalism Will James Principles of Psychology 1890 natural selection characteristics that have survival or reproductive advantage are more likely to be passed on Consciousness is an advantage of humans function and purpose of consciousness understanding the flow of consciousness not elements Testing development of patterns sex differences attracted first womenWashburn first female psych PHD in USAinsworth attachmentWright child psych educationKimura neuromotor mechanisms human communication applied Psych and Behaviourism descend from functionalism Behaviourism early 1900John B Watson Psych should be the study of Behaviour as there is no accurate way to figure out what goes on internally no study of conscious as it cant be proven Behaviour anything overt observable Study of stimulus and response Stimulus detectable input from environment Nurture NOT Nature stimulus response relationship study SR Psychology Ex PavlovGesalt Theory oppose behaviourism based in perception Freud and Unconscious Freud 18561939 Austria founded psychoanalysis talk therapy unconscious processes influence behaviour unconscious thoughts memories desires below the surface the surface of conscious awarenessunconscious conflict related to sexuality plays a central role in behaviour Psychoanalytic theory explains personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious Controversial it related to sex no free will in theory unscientific speculation influences art literature psychology dream analysis focus on personality motivation and abnormal behaviour BehaviourismSkinner 19041990 US internal mental events are private and unnecessary to explain behaviour responses with positive result are increased negative result decreases behaviour no free will every action conditioned used currently in schools prisons mental hospitals factories Humanism 1950sopposition to behaviour mod and psychoanalysis they are dehumanizing studies on animals are irrelevant to human psyche Maslow Rogers unique qualities that make us human empathy and personal growth and sense of self if human needs grow as human beings and fulfill their potential are not met it leads to psychological problems Psych in Canadast1 lab 1891 Baldwin at U of T Canadian Psych assoc 1939 Brenda Milner Donald Hebb McGill becomes first university to teach psych as well as the first university to place it in a distinct academic departmentPsychology used Clinically in World War I psych begins being used to screen intelligence of applicants in WW II psychologists are called to act in screening as well as helping cope with the trauma of warCognition mental process in acquiring knowledge 50s60s Piaget Chomsky Simon applications to study internal mental events becomes new dominant methodPhysiological Psychology biological perspective behaviour explained in terms of the physical Olds 1956 electrical stimulus of brain evokes emotional response in animals Sperry 1981 left right brain specialization Hebb 1949 cell assemblies describe neural networks Contemporary Psych Culture diversityEthnocentrism judging another culture as inferior compared to ones own Historic ex Upper class white males studying only upper class white males 1980s showed how culture influences behaviour growing global interdependence and diversity Evolutionary psych behaviour patternshuman behaviours have evolved to pass on genes and survive natural selection of behaviour 80s90s Buss DalyWilson CosmidesTooby mating preferences jealousy aggression criticism not relevantBullying in Schoolyards Pepler and Craig Naturalistic they placed microphones on students and observed most incidents involved peers an example of psych used for an everyday problemSeven Themes 1 Psych is empirical based on science and research 2 Psych is theoretically diverse many theories 3 Psych grows in sociohistorical context influenced by time period 4 Behaviour determined by many causes not just nature or nurture 5 Behaviour shaped by cultural heritage culture values
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